Last Update: Please login to view the prices! A Retrospective spanning the period from - plus 3 unreleased songs, 72 min, Digipack. Twelve beautifully crafted chapters of music segueing between morphing layers of thick drones, haunting melodies and crackling vocal transmissions.
Chronoland unfolds a fascinating and cineastic atmosphere of frightening ambient melodica with dark soundwaves deeply imbedded in the music and bursts of electro-acoustic effects. There is a truly organic, analog-based core sound with cyclical waves of thick synthesizer drones and modulated bass guitars while slowly oscillating effects and pulsing beats are drifting through the mix. In the early years of the battle, Germany held the naval advantage, easily picking off weakly defended merchant ships, albeit while sustaining heavy losses of its own.
After the U. A submarine-versus-destroyer duel hinted at in the clip and depicted in The Good Shepherd shares similarities with a real-life clash between the U. Borie and U-boat U Simkin for Naval History magazine in U sank that night; the badly damaged Borie was scuttled the following day. Such close encounters were rare during the Battle of the Atlantic, which was more often fought with torpedoes and depth charges. No silly intro that you always skip when you've heard it once, it's straight to the murky business of grinding scrap metal into oblivion.
The first nine songs are pure heartstoppers, they got me back home in no time after Maschinenfest, any speed tickets will be sent to the one who is responsible The one track that stands out above this industrial bliss is "Emotional Chaos"but the others will also hack and blast a way through your skull. It mounted a mm M mortar operated by three servicemen and a driver. Only 1 vehicle seems to have been made.
However, its role was more akin to an engineering vehicle. It was armed with a. As far as it is known, only a single of these vehicles was built. The Maxson mount was copied by a Brazilian company and would be used for Anti-Aircraft AA purposes, and could mount 2 20 mm cannons as well. As far as it is known, only one vehicle was ever built. The XM3D1 found its unfortunate fate on the wrong side of a B1 Centauro barrel, as it was used as a range target when the B1 was trialed in This was another continuation of a previous project on the M3 Stuart for AA purposes.
It comprised the installation of a Bofors 40 mm L60 gun within a turret on the X1 hull. Work was initiated, and the vehicle would have a considerably lower hull than the other X1s.
Because of the lowered hull, the turret had to be placed on the left side of the hull to make room for the drive shaft. Eventually the project was cancelled before the Bofors was ever mounted, and it would receive the same Maxson turret as the XM3D1. It would later be used as a towing vehicle and the Maxson turret was removed. This overhaul was done for free as a sign of goodwill by Brazil and was carried out by Bernardini and the CTEx.
This never happened and Paraguay would continue operating the now overhauled Stuarts. Among these projects was a project for a tracked armored fighting vehicle, which would become the X-MAR. Due to internal issues in Biselli, the projects would be cancelled, and the planned vehicles for the CFN would not come to be.
Although Dacunha would try until to mount their copied M41 suspension on a Stuart, the Army would not give them a vehicle to do so. In addition, the Stuarts would be powered with a Detroit 6V53T diesel engine. Due to directive changes within the Ecuadorian Armed Forces, the project would be cancelled potentially due to the acquisition of the EE-9 Cascavel.
These three types of X1s were only studied and never left the drawing board, if they were actually drawn in the first place. Nothing is known about these vehicles except that they were studied for a brief Album), but would never be built or further developed.
Considering Brazil never went to war after World War 2, and its main issues were dealing with guerillas, the armored vehicles of Brazil have a practically non-existent combat service within the Brazilian Army.
The 34 vehicles equipped 2 squadrons, consisting of 17 vehicles each, and would serve for four years alongside the VBTP Urutu, until the M would take over this role in There, it filled a single squadron, replacing the M4 Sherman squadron. It served with the Urutu as well, which would also be replaced with Ms in In addition, the 6th RCB was the only squadron to receive the X1A2, operating 10 vehicles and replacing the second squadron of M4 Shermans in Throughout its service life, the X1 would show a number of issues.
Most of these could be blamed on the age of the Stuart, considering the 6th RCB, which had received X1s which were converted from better quality Stuarts, had much fewer issues than the 4th RCB. Among these issues were a flawed single disc clutch, locally produced volute springs that broke and would later be replaced by imported springs, and the swing arms of the track idler starting to crack when the X1 moved at full speed. This last issue seems to have been the most severe, as the system was apparently unable to take the weight of the X1 in combination with its speed and cross-country operations.
The first instance of the swing arms cracking was in December on an X1 of the 4th RCB, after 1, hours of operations. This problem would also appear on X1s with as little as hours of operational service. By the end ofonly 2 of the 34 X1 vehicles of the 4th RCB would be operational.
Eventually, the problem which caused the cracking was found: the copied ton suspension used a grease cup instead of oil lubrication for the bearing of the idler.
Since grease has a higher viscosity than oil, it was unable to properly Album) and lubricate the bearing, causing the idler wheels to get stuck and subsequently tear the swing arms apart. In Junethis issue was resolved by returning to oil lubrication, and the 4th RCB would operate 23 X1s after repair works were carried out. Initially, it was planned for Bernardini to produce 58 new idlers, but the costs were so high that this was abandoned. In addition to the swing arms cracking, the hull also started to crack at the mounting point of the bogies.
This was caused due to improper supporting of the bogie suspensions with the increased weight of the vehicles. Biselli seemed to not have fully committed to the X1 project at the time, which might have caused them to improperly design the mounting. It has to be noted that there was also a lack of operational and maintenance manuals, which most likely caused the vehicles to deteriorate faster than they should have.
The X1 would be gradually replaced by the M41C inand would be decommissioned in July It is suggested that some X1s were used as training vehicles, as they were cheaper than the M41C. The X1s would be gradually phased out by the M41s.
Most X1s seem to have been scraped, but a decent amount can still be found at multiple locations in Brazil. Various X1s ended up as gate guardians for military bases and institutions, and they are also presented in the Museu Militar Conde de Linhares alongside some variants of the X1.
The X1 was never really a very good tank, with the Commander of the AMAN stating that the X1 compromises the fighting power of Brazil, and that it was more of a useful tool to get to the height of their commitments: an adequate national tank.
This is really what the X1 project was. The X1 was a more or less successful attempt by the Brazilian Army and its rising defense industry to convert an obsolete tank into a service-worthy vehicle.
Brazil managed to create an extensive family of vehicles to support the X1 and all its variants for potential combat service, but only a few would ever see service, become a prototype or see the light of day. But this does not take away from the actual goal of the Brazilian defense industry at the time, which was not to create an exceptional combat vehicle. The X1 was developed and built to gain experience in the manufacture and conversion of armored vehicles, which would later be carried out on more complicated vehicles, like the M41 Walker Bulldog.
The X1 just needed to extend the service life and improve the combat effectiveness of the M3 Stuart until the M41C project could be initiated. The low weight of the X1 was seen as an extra advantage, considering the infrastructure and terrain on which the Brazilian Army might have had to fight, which would have been much harder with heavier vehicles.
Nevertheless, the X1 did have some significant issues, which took some years to address. As such, the X1 can be seen as an inadequate vehicle service wise, considering that more than half of the X1 fleet was out of operation for a year untilbecause of a problem that was first found in The X1 can be summarized as a vehicle which achieved its eventual goal from the bigger defense industry picture, but did not perform or was not necessarily much more useful than other equipment which the Brazilian Army had in service.
Throughout and in the aftermath of World War 2, Brazil would receive large numbers of cheap armored vehicles from the United States, including the M3 Stuart and the M4 Sherman. In fact, Brazil had not undertaken any tank design sinceand those had only been conversions of tractors and cars into armored vehicles during the revolutions ofand Between andthe Brazilian Armed Forces created a solid basis of technical institutes from which it could educate technical and research personnel, which in turn helped the Brazilian automotive industry in developing their own automotive parts and helped in opening laboratories for the manufacturers.
This basis eventually resulted in a mock-up of the VETE T-1 A-1 inand later, ina prototype of the very first Brazilian indigenously designed and built armored vehicle meant for serial production. The Brazilian armored vehicle industry was born. A VP armed with a 75 mm recoilless rifle was also built, but, by that time, interest in the VP had been lost.
It was designed to be a high-speed low profile reconnaissance vehicle. However, at the time, the project would not advance any further. FNM was founded on June 13th,during World War 2, with the objective of manufacturing aircraft engines. Inthe company started producing Wright engines for the US. Brazil participated in World War 2 as an Allied country and took part in the Battle for the Atlantic and also sent an expeditionary force consisting of around 25, men, called the Smoking Snakes, who fought alongside the Americans in Italy.
In exchange, the US would help Brazil with industry and equipment, including the capabilities of producing aircraft engines.
It was seen as an advantageous contract from both the Brazilian and US perspectives. The Brazilians acquired the engine technology and learned how to manufacture them, while the US would have a supplier of aircraft engines, far away from Europe and Asia. Afterthe production of aircraft engines was no longer needed and, inFNM decided to manufacture trucks, becoming the first automotive factory of Brazil.
A prototype was built under the responsibility of FNM. Eight companies and military institutions would eventually participate in the development of the prototype, each delivering components and design input. The prototype was Greyhound - Prototype (CD on July 13th, The prototype was unarmed at first, but would later receive an M The later version was the version that was shown to both the public and in Military Review.
The Cutia was a tracked vehicle with an open hull top and was manufactured out of cold folded steel plates and profiles. The crew consisted of either 2 or 4 crew members, depending on if they sat or layed down in the vehicle. The driver was located in the front left of the vehicle and the gunner was located in the front right of the vehicle. It weighed 2.
The engine and fuel tank were installed in a simple steel box in the back. The gearbox was located in the front of the vehicle, which meant that the Cutia was effectively cut in half to make room for the driveshaft from the engine to the gearbox.
This affected the number of crew members that could have been transported if the gearbox was located in the back of the vehicle. The box could be opened through a hinge mechanism. Furthermore, the vehicle had two headlights, two backlights, and, on the right side, above the headlight, something that resembles a blackout marker. The Cutia was powered by a 4-cylinder gasoline engine that delivered 95 hp. The vehicle had a 60 liter The exhaust was mounted on the back of the left mudguard.
The driver used a traditional tiller bar configuration to operate the vehicle. Another interesting detail is that the instrument panel for the driver was the Greyhound - Prototype (CD as on the FNM JK.
The Cutia had a torsion bar suspension with individual torsion bars for every road wheel. The vehicle had 5 road wheels and 2 return rollers on each side. The track was very narrow.
The Cutia was armed with an M The gunner had a small vision slit above the machine gun. The vehicle had 10 boxes of. In addition, it was also armed with a 2. The rocket launcher was mounted on the back of the right mudguard. The Cutia was extensively tested by the Brazilian Army. The armor was insufficient, the engine and fuel tanks were vulnerable due to the use of gasoline, and the open-top made the crew vulnerable to weapons such as Molotov cocktails or grenades.
Combined with the ease of importing US equipment and the low cost of acquiring these vehicles, these flaws would not only cause the cancellation of the Cutia project but also a decreased willingness of the Brazilian authorities Greyhound - Prototype (CD actively develop and fund their own armored vehicles until the 70s, when the costs of indigenous armored vehicle development became more viable compared to foreign vehicles.
All in all, the idea behind the Cutia was not a bad idea for Brazil or any other South American country. The specifications for armored vehicles of these countries have mostly been for lighter vehicles to traverse hard accessible terrain.
The Argentinian TAM tank is one of these examples. By creating a low-profile vehicle for reconnaissance, the Brazlians, in theory, could have had a reconnaissance vehicle in their army if it did not have the deficiencies it had. The Cutia must be seen as what it was: a first attempt by an industry which had never designed and built an armored vehicle for serial production to be used by the army. It would take until for Brazil to develop a new light tracked vehicle which was meant to serve as a multipurpose platform, named the EE-T4 Ogum.
A Brazilian T17 Deerhound. Source: Armored Car — R. Hunnicutt The T17 in Brazil Brazilian sources are unclear as to when Brazil received the T17 Deerhounds, as they estimate the delivery of the T17 from to Drawing of the pre marking on the left, and the Cruzeiro de Sul on the right.
The Tuiuti on display as a monument. Note the old markings. The transmission system of the T17 Deerhound. Hunnicutt Fate The exact fate of the T17 Deerhounds is unknown. The VBB Illustrations The T17 Deerhound with the pre marking. The T17 Deerhound with the Cruzeiro de Sul marking. The XLF Brazil — Tracked Self-Propelled Multiple Rocket Launcher — 1 prototype built InBrazil began developing the X1 light tankwhich was completed later that year.
The FvR Jeep. The first Album) during firing trials in The sketches from the IPD, presented on July 20th A picture with the two plate front side plates encircled in red. This style was exclusive to the X1 prototype as all production vehicles used a single plate. The front of the XLF, note the hydraulic cylinders and the rotating bar attached to the feet. Turret and Armament The turret was replaced by a single plate on which the rocket frame and the needed hydraulics were mounted.
The rotating plate with the two hatches and the launching platform on top. The XLF with its launching platform at its most extreme angle. Note the difference in hydraulic cylinder position. Fate After the XLF was presented in the Independence Day Parade inBrazilians would continue testing and improving the vehicle until the early s.
Illustrations The XLF The VBB-1 spare tyre concept. Brazil Reconnaissance Vehicle — 1 Prototype Built Up untilBrazil was dependent on foreign countries for armored vehicles. Early designs Inthe DGMB made a sketch of a 4 x 4 vehicle, armed with a 37 mm cannon which was mounted in a rotating turret.
Intro Under my skin Inside my head Feel it closer day by day Tighten up A pain in my chest Sow my fate with my own hand I'm freezing up again It's so cold inside my head The weight each day this body fucking breaks.
Toil Violent Ignorance Selfish Cowering Exception Unresponsive Focused Sheltered Distraction Preservation Violent ignorance Scaling up in altitude nothing bothers you Always turning a blind eye While those beneath you slowly die War and death are tucked away Peacefully go about you day Violent ignorance.
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