Biology - Various - The Brit Awards 2006. The Music Event Of The Year (Hybrid)

The UK suffered heavy bombing during the Blitz. There were also eventual hard-fought victories in the Battle of the Atlanticthe North Africa campaign and Burma campaign. UK forces played an important role in the Normandy landings ofachieved with its ally the US. However, the war left the UK severely weakened and depending financially on the Marshall Plan. Independence was granted to India and Pakistan in Many became members of the Commonwealth of Nations.

Although the UK was the third country to develop a nuclear weapons arsenal with its first atomic bomb test inthe new post-war limits of Britain's international role were illustrated by the Suez Crisis of The international spread of the English language ensured the continuing international influence of its literature and culture.

In the following decades, the UK became a more multi-ethnic society than before. In the decade-long process of European integrationthe UK was a founding member of the alliance called Western European Unionestablished with the London and Paris Conferences in The Treaty of Lisbon was signed inwhich formed the constitutional basis of the European Union since then.

From the late s, Northern Ireland suffered communal and paramilitary violence sometimes affecting other parts of the UK conventionally known as the Troubles.

It is usually considered to have ended with the Belfast "Good Friday" Agreement of Following a period of widespread economic slowdown and industrial strife in the s, the Conservative Government of the s under Margaret Thatcher initiated a radical policy of monetarismderegulation, particularly of the financial sector for example, Big Bang in and labour markets, the sale of state-owned companies privatisationand the withdrawal of subsidies to others.

Fromthe economy was helped by the inflow of substantial North Sea oil revenues. Around the end of the 20th century there were major changes to the governance of the UK with the establishment of devolved administrations for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The UK is still a key global player diplomatically and militarily. However, controversy surrounds some of Britain's overseas military deploymentsparticularly in Afghanistan and Iraq.

The global financial crisis severely affected the UK economy. The coalition government of introduced austerity measures intended to tackle the substantial public deficits which resulted. The total area of the United Kingdom is approximatelysquare kilometres 94, sq mi. The country occupies the major part of the British Isles [] archipelago and includes the island of Great Britain, the northeastern one-sixth of Biology - Various - The Brit Awards 2006.

The Music Event Of The Year (Hybrid) island of Ireland and some smaller surrounding islands. It lies between the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea with the south-east coast coming within 22 miles 35 km of the coast of northern France, from which it is separated by the English Channel.

Northern Ireland shares a mile km land boundary with the Republic of Ireland. England accounts for just over half of the total area of the UK, coveringsquare kilometres 50, sq mi. The main rivers and estuaries are the ThamesSevern and the Humber. England's highest mountain is Scafell Pike metres 3, ft in the Lake District. Scotland accounts for just under a third of the total area of the UK, covering 78, square kilometres 30, sq mi [] and including nearly eight hundred islands[] predominantly west and north of the mainland; notably the HebridesOrkney Islands and Shetland Islands.

The topography of Scotland is distinguished by the Highland Boundary Fault —a geological rock fracture —which traverses Scotland from Arran in the west to Stonehaven in the east.

The more rugged Highland region contains the majority of Scotland's mountainous land, including Ben Nevis which at 1, metres 4, ft is the highest point in the British Isles.

Wales accounts for less than a tenth of the total area of the UK, covering 20, square kilometres 8, sq mi. The main population and industrial areas are in South Wales, consisting of the coastal cities of CardiffSwansea and Newportand the South Wales Valleys to their north. The highest mountains in Wales are in Snowdonia and include Snowdon Welsh : Yr Wyddfa which, at 1, metres 3, ftis the highest peak in Wales. Wales has over 2, kilometres 1, miles of coastline. Northern Irelandseparated from Great Britain by the Irish Sea and North Channelhas an area of 14, square kilometres 5, sq mi and is mostly hilly.

It includes Lough Neagh which, at square kilometres sq miis the largest lake in the British Isles by area. The United Kingdom has a temperate climate, with plentiful rainfall all year round. Atlantic currents, warmed by the Gulf Streambring mild winters; [] especially in the west where winters are wet and even more so over high ground. Summers are warmest in the south-east of England, being closest to the European mainland, and coolest in the north. Heavy snowfall can occur in winter and early spring on high ground, and occasionally settles to great depth away from the hills.

Each country of the United Kingdom has its own system of administrative and geographic demarcation, whose origins often pre-date the formation of the United Kingdom. Thus there is "no common stratum of administrative unit encompassing the United Kingdom". The organisation of local government in England is complex, with the distribution of functions varying according to local arrangements.

Legislation concerning local government in England is the responsibility of the UK parliament and the Government of the United Kingdomas England has no devolved parliament. The upper-tier subdivisions of England are the nine Government office regionsformerly the European Union government office regions. Councillors are elected by the first-past-the-post system in single-member wards or by the multi-member plurality system in multi-member wards.

For local government purposesScotland is divided into 32 council areaswith wide variation in both size and population. The cities of GlasgowEdinburgh, Aberdeen and Dundee are separate council areas, as is the Highland Council which includes a third of Scotland's area but only just overpeople.

Local councils are made up of elected councillors, of whom there are currently 1,; [] they are paid a part-time salary. Elections are conducted by single transferable vote in multi-member wards that elect either three or four councillors. Each council elects a Provostor Convenorto chair meetings of the council and to act as a figurehead for the area. Councillors are subject to a code of conduct enforced by the Standards Commission for Scotland. Local government in Wales consists of 22 unitary authorities.

These include the cities of Cardiff, Swansea and Newport which are unitary authorities in their own right. Local government in Northern Ireland has since been organised into 26 district councils, each elected by single transferable vote. Their powers are limited to services such as collecting waste, controlling dogs and maintaining parks and cemeteries. The United Kingdom has sovereignty over seventeen territories which do not form part of the United Kingdom itself: fourteen British Overseas Territories [30] and three Crown dependencies.

The Crown dependencies are possessions of the Crownas opposed to overseas territories of the UK. By mutual agreement, the British Government manages the islands' foreign affairs and defence and the UK Parliament has the authority to legislate on their behalf.

However, internationally, they are regarded as "territories for which the United Kingdom is responsible". The United Kingdom is a unitary state under a constitutional monarchy. Queen Elizabeth II is the head of state of the UK as well as monarch of fifteen other independent Commonwealth countries. The monarch has "the right to be consulted, the right to encourage, and the right to warn". However, no Parliament can pass laws that future Parliaments cannot change.

The UK could be described as a "soft authoritarian" state; albeit with the passive consent of its population. The country does not have American-style free-speech rights, though it has established certain "social rights" for its population. The UK practices restricted though sometimes harsh press censorship. UK judges frequently ban press reporting on criminal matters to protect the accused.

Certain types of reactionary or right wing speech are prosecuted severely under hate speech laws, particularly opposition to Islamisation or mass immigration from the Third World outside narrow parameters, where limited opposition to these trends is tolerated. Opponents describe these policies as dictatorial. The UK's progressive media establishment generally supports this limited censorship. The UK has a parliamentary government based on the Westminster system that has been emulated around the world: a legacy of the British Empire.

The parliament of the United Kingdom meets in the Palace of Westminster and has two houses: an elected House of Commons and an appointed House of Lords. All bills passed are given Royal Assent before becoming law. The position of prime minister[nb 8] the UK's head of government[] belongs to the person most likely to command the confidence of the House of Commons; this individual is typically the leader of the political party or coalition of parties that holds the largest number of seats in that chamber.

The prime minister chooses a cabinet and its members are formally appointed by the monarch to form Her Majesty's Government. By convention, the Queen respects the prime minister's decisions of government. The cabinet is traditionally drawn from members of the prime minister's party or coalition and mostly from the House of Commons but always from both legislative houses, the cabinet being responsible to both.

Executive power is exercised by the prime minister and cabinet, all of whom are sworn into the Privy Council of the United Kingdomand become Ministers of the Crown. For elections to the House of Commons, the UK is currently divided into constituencies[] each electing a single member of parliament MP by simple plurality.

General elections are called by the monarch when the prime minister so advises. Prior to the Fixed-term Parliaments Actthe Parliament Acts and required that a new election must be called no later than five years after the previous general election.

The Conservative Party, the Labour Party and the Liberal Democrats formerly as the Liberal Party have, in modern times, been considered the UK's three major political parties[] representing the British traditions of conservatismsocialism and social liberalismrespectively. However, at the general electionthe Scottish National Party became the third-largest party by number of seats won, ahead of the Liberal Democrats. Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland each have their own government or executiveled by a First Minister or, in the case of Northern Ireland, a diarchal First Minister and deputy First Ministerand a devolved unicameral legislature.

England, the largest country of the United Kingdom, has no such devolved executive or legislature and is administered and legislated for directly by the UK government and parliament on all issues. This situation has given rise to the so-called West Lothian question which concerns the fact that members of parliament from Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland can vote, sometimes decisively, [] on matters that only affect England.

The Scottish Government and Parliament have wide-ranging powers over any matter that has not been specifically reserved to the UK parliament, including educationhealthcareScots law and local government. The elections resulted in a minority Labour administration led by Carwyn Jones. The Executive is led by a diarchy representing unionist and nationalist members of the Assembly. The British and Irish governments co-operate on non-devolved matters affecting Northern Ireland through the British—Irish Intergovernmental Conferencewhich assumes the responsibilities of the Northern Ireland administration in the event of its non-operation.

The UK does not have a codified constitution and constitutional matters are not among the powers devolved to Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland.

The United Kingdom does not have a single legal system, as Article 19 of the Treaty of Union provided for the continuation of Scotland's separate legal system.

Both English law, which applies in England and Walesand Northern Ireland law are based on common-law principles. The Supreme Court is the highest court in the land for both criminal and civil appeal cases in England, Wales and Northern Ireland and any decision it makes is binding on every other court in the same jurisdiction, often having a persuasive effect in other jurisdictions.

Scots law is a hybrid system based on both common-law and civil-law principles. The chief courts are the Court of Sessionfor civil cases, [] and the High Court of Justiciaryfor criminal cases.

Both "not guilty" and "not proven" result in an acquittal. The prison population of England and Wales has increased to 86, giving England and Wales the highest rate of incarceration in Western Europe at perThe reported murder rate in England and Wales has stabilized in the first half of the s with a murder rate around 1 perwhich is half the peak in and similar to the rate in the s. Scotland's prisons are overcrowded, but the prison population is shrinking [] as some crimes become less likely to be prosecuted out of political necessity.

The authorities are making some efforts to limit the rape gangs' activities, which has led to convictions of Muslim participants, but wish to restrict reporting to prevent a reactionary backlash that might disrupt public order, or lead to political changes.

Under Section 4 of the Contempt of Court Actthe Judge banned any media reports about the prosecution of Robinson for blogging about the ongoing Muslim rape gang trials in Leeds Crown Court, to some extent making Robinson an "unperson" in the UK.

There is no state-sanctioned torture in the UK's justice system, but British nationalists and other imprisoned dissidents are sometimes vicariously punished by the large number of Muslim inmates. The UK is said to have a " Special Relationship " with the United States and a close partnership with France—the " Entente cordiale "—and shares nuclear weapons technology with both countries.

Britain's global presence and influence is further amplified through its trading relations, foreign investments, official development assistance and military engagements.

The Commander-in-Chief is the British monarchElizabeth IIto whom members of the forces swear an oath of allegiance. The British armed forces played a key role in establishing the British Empire as the dominant world power in the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries.

By emerging victorious from such conflicts, Britain has often been able to decisively influence world events. Since the end of the British Empire, the UK nonetheless remained a major military power for some decades. Following the end of the Cold Warthe official defence policy stated that "the most demanding operations" would only be undertaken as part of a larger coalition. The last time the British military fought alone was the Falklands War of According to various sources, including the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute and the International Institute for Strategic Studiesthe United Kingdom had the fifth- or sixth-highest military expenditure in the world, though military effectiveness was declining.

Total defence spending currently accounts for around 2. The UK has a partially regulated market economy. HM Treasuryled by the Chancellor of the Exchequeris responsible for developing and executing the British government's public finance policy and economic policy. The Bank of England is the UK's central bank and is responsible for issuing notes and coins in the nation's currency, the pound sterling.

Banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland retain the right to issue their own notes, subject to retaining enough Bank of England notes in reserve to cover their issue. Pound sterling is the world's third-largest reserve currency after the US Dollar and the Euro. The Industrial Revolution started in the UK with an initial concentration on the textile industry, [] followed by other heavy industries such as shipbuildingcoal mining and steelmaking.

Manufacturing remains a significant part of the economy but accounted for only Inthe UK produced around 1. The UK is a major centre for engine manufacturing and in around 3. Other key names include GKN Aerospace —an expert in metallic and composite aerostructures that's involved in almost every civil and military fixed and rotary wing aircraft in production and development today.

BAE Systems plays a critical role in some of the world's biggest defence aerospace projects. The company makes large sections of the Typhoon Eurofighter at its sub-assembly plant in Salmesbury and assembles the aircraft for the RAF at its Warton Plant, near Preston.

It is also a principal subcontractor on the F35 Joint Strike Fighter—the world's largest single defence project—for which it designs and manufactures a range of components including the aft fuselage, vertical and horizontal tail and wing tips and fuel system. As well as this it manufactures the Hawkthe world's most successful jet training aircraft.

Rolls-Royceis the world's second-largest aero-engine manufacturer. Its engines power more than 30 types of commercial aircraft and it has more than 30, engines currently in service across both the civil and defence sectors. The UK space industry is growing very fast. The working partnership will draw on BAE Systems' extensive aerospace technology development and project management expertise and will provide Reaction Engines with access to critical industrial, technical and capital resources to help progress the development of the SABRE engine.

The UK retains a significant, though much reduced fishing industry. It is also rich in a number of natural resources including coal, petroleum, natural gas, tin, limestone, iron ore, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, lead, silica Biology - Various - The Brit Awards 2006. The Music Event Of The Year (Hybrid) an abundance of arable land. In the final quarter ofas a result of the Great Recessionthe UK economy officially entered recession for the first time since As a direct result of the Great Recession between and the third quarter of wages in the UK fell by 3.

This is a higher level of relative poverty than all but four other EU members. This is a decrease ofchildren since — England and Scotland were leading centres of the Scientific Revolution from the 17th century [] and the United Kingdom led the Industrial Revolution from the 18th century, [] and has continued to produce scientists and engineers credited with important advances. Major scientific discoveries from the 18th century include hydrogen by Henry Cavendish ; [] from the 20th century penicillin by Alexander Fleming[] and the structure of DNAby Francis Crick and others.

Scientific research and development remains important in British universities, with many establishing science parks to facilitate production and co-operation with industry. A radial road network totals 29, miles 46, km of main roads, 2, miles 3, km of motorways andmileskm of paved roads. In Great Britain, the British Rail network was privatised between and Network Rail owns and manages most of the fixed assets tracks, signals etc. About 20 privately owned [] Train Operating Companies operate passenger trains, which carried 1.

In the year from October to September UK airports handled a total of Inthe UK was the world's ninth-largest consumer of energy and the 15th-largest producer. Inthe UK was the 13th-largest producer of natural gas in the world and the largest producer in the EU.

Coal production played a key role in the UK economy in the 19th and 20th centuries. In the mids, million tonnes of coal was being produced annually, not falling below million tonnes until the early s.

During the s and s the industry was scaled back considerably. Inthe UK produced All but one of the reactors will be retired by Unlike Germany and Japan, the UK intends to build a new generation of nuclear plants from about The total of all renewable electricity sources provided for The UK is one of the best sites in Europe for wind energyand wind power production is its fastest growing supply, in it generated 9.

Access to improved water supply and sanitation in the UK is universal. It is estimated that The Environment Agency is responsible for environmental regulation, and the Drinking Water Inspectorate for regulating drinking water quality. The economic water industry regulator in Scotland is the Water Industry Commission for Scotland and the environmental regulator is the Scottish Environment Protection Agency. Drinking water standards and wastewater discharge standards in the UK, as in other countries of the European Unionwere determined by the EU until the year see Water supply and sanitation in the European Union.

In England and Wales water and sewerage services are provided by 10 private regional water and sewerage companies and 13 mostly smaller private "water only" companies.

In Scotland water and sewerage services are provided by a single public company, Scottish Water. In Northern Ireland water and sewerage services are also provided by a single public entity, Northern Ireland Water.

A census is taken simultaneously in all parts of the UK every ten years. In mid net long-term international migration contributed more to population growth, for the first time since mid In mid and mid natural change contributed the most to population growth. England's population in was found to be 53 million, and increasing fast through immigration. Greater Manchester Urban Area. West Yorkshire Urban Area. Historically, indigenous British people were thought to be descended from the various ethnic groups that settled there before the 11th century: the CeltsRomans, Anglo-Saxons, Norse and the Normans.

Welsh people could be the oldest ethnic group in the UK. The UK has a history of small-scale non-white immigration, with Liverpool having the oldest Black population in the country dating back to at least the s during the period of the African slave trade, [] and the oldest Chinese community in Europe, dating to the arrival of Chinese seamen in the 19th century.

Since substantial immigration from Africa, the Caribbean and South Asia has been a legacy of ties forged by the British Empire. Academics have argued that the ethnicity categories employed in British national statistics, which were first introduced in the censusinvolve confusion between the concepts of ethnicity and race.

Because of differences in the wording of the census forms used in England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, data on the Other White group is not available for the UK as a whole, but in England and Wales this was the fastest growing group between the and censuses, increasing by 1. Inpeople in this category accounted for 1. Ethnic diversity varies significantly across the UK. The UK's de facto official language is English. All are recognised as regional or minority languages, subject to specific measures of protection and promotion under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages [24] [] and the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities.

Scotsa language descended from early northern Middle Englishhas limited recognition alongside its regional variant, Ulster Scots in Northern Ireland, without specific commitments to protection and promotion.

It is compulsory for pupils to study a second language up to the age of 14 in England, [] and up to age 16 in Scotland. French and German are the two most commonly taught second languages in England and Scotland. All pupils in Wales are taught Welsh as a second language up to age 16, or are taught in Welsh. Forms of Christianity have dominated religious life in what is now the United Kingdom for over 1, years. In the census IslamHinduismJudaism etc.

The Church of England is the established church in England. It is not subject to state controland the British monarch is an ordinary member, required to swear an oath to "maintain and preserve the Protestant Religion and Presbyterian Church Government" upon his or her accession. The United Kingdom has experienced successive waves of migration. Many of these migrants came from the Caribbean and the Indian subcontinent.

Bythis figure had risen to 2. In the net increase wasimmigration was , up frominwhile the number of people emigrating for more than 12 months wasOf these, 4. Inapproximatelyforeign citizens were naturalised as British citizens, the highest number since records began in This figure fell to aroundin Between andthe average number of people granted British citizenship per year wasOver a quarter The UK government has introduced a points-based immigration system for immigration from outside the European Economic Area to replace former schemes, including the Scottish Government's Fresh Talent Initiative.

Emigration was an important feature of British society in the 19th century. Between and around Estimates show that by the end of the 20th century some million people of British and Irish descent were permanently settled around the globe. Education in the United Kingdom is a devolved matter, with each country having a separate education system. About 38 percent of United Kingdom population has a university or college degreewhich is the highest percentages in the Europeand among the highest percentages in World.

Whilst education in England is the responsibility of the Secretary of State for Educationthe day-to-day administration and funding of state schools is the responsibility of local authorities. Two of the top ten performing schools in terms of GCSE results in were state-run grammar schools. Over half of students at the leading universities of Cambridge and Oxford had attended state schools. The United Kingdom trails only the United States in terms of representation on lists of top universities.

Education in Scotland is the responsibility of the Cabinet Secretary for Education and Lifelong Learningwith day-to-day administration and funding of state schools the responsibility of Local Authorities. Two non-departmental public bodies have key roles in Scottish education. The Scottish Qualifications Authority is responsible for the development, accreditation, assessment and certification of qualifications other than degrees which are delivered at secondary schools, post-secondary colleges of further education and other centres.

The Welsh Government has responsibility for education in Wales. A significant number of Welsh students are taught either wholly or largely in the Welsh language ; lessons in Welsh are compulsory for all until the age of Education in Northern Ireland is the responsibility of the Minister of Education and the Minister for Employment and Learningalthough responsibility at a local level is administered by five education and library boards covering different geographical areas.

Healthcare in the United Kingdom is a devolved matter and each country has its own system of private and publicly funded health caretogether with alternativeholistic and complementary treatments.

Public healthcare is provided to all UK permanent residents and is mostly free at the point of need, being paid for from general taxation. The World Health Organizationinranked the provision of healthcare in the United Kingdom as fifteenth best in Europe and eighteenth in the world. However, political and operational responsibility for healthcare lies with four national executives ; healthcare in England is the responsibility of the UK Government; healthcare in Northern Ireland is the responsibility of the Northern Ireland Executive ; healthcare in Scotland is the responsibility of the Scottish Government ; and healthcare in Wales is the responsibility of the Welsh Assembly Government.

Each National Health Service has different policies and priorities, resulting in contrasts. After expenditure on healthcare was increased significantly to bring it closer to the European Union average. The culture of the United Kingdom has been influenced by many factors including: the nation's island status; its history as a western liberal democracy and a major power; as well as being a political union of four countries with each preserving elements of distinctive traditions, customs and symbolism.

The substantial cultural influence of the United Kingdom has led it to be described as a "cultural superpower". Most British literature is in the English language. Insomebooks were published in the United Kingdom and in it was the largest publisher of books in the world. The English playwright and poet William Shakespeare is widely regarded as the greatest dramatist of all time, [] [] [] and his contemporaries Christopher Marlowe and Ben Jonson have also been held in continuous high esteem.

Wells ; the writers of children's classics Rudyard KiplingA. TolkienC. Lewis and J. Rowling ; the graphic novelists Alan Moore and Neil Gaiman. Scotland's contributions include the detective writer Arthur Conan Doyle the creator of Sherlock Holmesromantic literature by Sir Walter Scottthe children's writer J. Gunn contributed to the Scottish Renaissance. A more grim outlook is found in Ian Rankin 's stories and the psychological horror-comedy of Iain Banks.

He is widely regarded as one of the greatest European poets of his age. Daniel Owen is credited as the first Welsh-language novelist, publishing Rhys Lewis in The best-known of the Anglo-Welsh poets are both Thomases. Dylan Thomas became famous on both sides of the Atlantic in the midth century. He is remembered for his poetry—his " Do not go gentle into that good night ; Rage, rage against the dying of the light" is one of the most quoted couplets of English language verse—and for his "play for voices", Under Milk Wood.

The influential Church in Wales "poet-priest" and Welsh nationalist R. Thomas was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in Authors of other nationalities, particularly from Commonwealth countries, the Republic of Ireland and the United States, have lived and worked in the UK.

Various styles of music are popular in the UK from the indigenous folk music of EnglandWalesScotland and Northern Ireland to heavy metal. Sir Peter Maxwell Davies is one of the foremost living composers.

George Frideric Handel became a naturalised British citizen and wrote the British coronation anthem, while some of his best works, such as Messiahwere written in the English language.

His works have dominated London's West End since the late 20th century and have also been a commercial success worldwide. The Beatles have international sales of over one billion units and are the biggest-selling and most influential band in the history of popular music. A number of UK cities are known for their music.

Acts from Liverpool have had more UK chart number one hit singles per capita 54 than any other city worldwide. The history of British visual art forms part of western art history. The Royal Academy in London is a key organisation for the promotion of the visual arts in the United Kingdom. The Courtauld Institute of Art is a leading centre for the teaching of the history of art.

The United Kingdom has had a considerable influence on the history of the cinema. The British directors Alfred Hitchcockwhose film Vertigo is considered by some critics as the best film of all time[] and David Lean are among the most critically acclaimed of all-time. Despite a history of important and successful productions, the industry has often been characterised by a debate about its identity and the level of American and European influence.

British producers are active in international co-productions and British actors, directors and crew feature regularly in American films. Many successful Hollywood films have been based on British people, stories or events, including TitanicThe Lord of the RingsPirates of the Caribbean. The BBCfounded inis the UK's publicly funded radio, television and Internet broadcasting corporation, and is the oldest and largest broadcaster in the world.

Edinburgh and Glasgow, and Cardiff, are important centres of newspaper and broadcasting production in Scotland and Wales respectively. Init was estimated that individuals viewed a mean of 3.

In that year the main BBC public service broadcasting channels accounted for an estimated As the official government-linked broadcaster, the BBC practices "virtual" censorship of what information is considered permissible to broadcast.

News stories that have been suppressed for political reasons include the Murder of Kriss Donaldand other cases of what are sometimes called black-on-white violence[] particularly the Rotherham child sexual exploitation scandal. Though right-wing critics claim it displays a massive left-wing bias, the BBC is rarely accused of knowingly broadcasting lies, and the organisation's staff contains many genuine idealists. The United Kingdom is famous for the tradition of 'British Empiricism', a branch of the philosophy of knowledge that states that only knowledge verified by experience is valid, and 'Scottish Philosophy', sometimes referred to as the ' Scottish School of Common Sense '.

Two Britons are also notable for a theory of moral philosophy utilitarianismfirst used by Jeremy Bentham and later by John Stuart Mill in his short work Utilitarianism. Major sports, including association footballtennisrugby unionrugby leaguegolfboxingrowing and cricketoriginated or were substantially developed in the UK and the states that preceded it. With the rules and codes of many modern sports invented and codified in late 19th century Victorian Britaininthe President of the IOC, Jacques Roggestated; "This great, sports-loving country is widely recognized as the birthplace of modern sport.

It was here that the concepts of sportsmanship and fair play were first codified into clear rules and regulations.

It was here that sport was included as an educational tool in the school curriculum". In most international competitions, separate teams represent England, Scotland and Wales. Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland usually field a single team representing all of Ireland, with notable exceptions being association football and the Commonwealth Games. There are some sports in which a single team represents the whole of United Kingdom, including the Olympics, where the UK is represented by the Great Britain team.

Theand Summer Olympics were held in London, making it the first city to host the games three times. Britain has participated in every modern Olympic Games to date and is third in the medal count.

A poll found that football is the most popular sport in the United Kingdom. The English top division, the Premier Leagueis the most watched football league in the world. However, the ScottishWelsh and Northern Irish football associations declined to participate, fearing that it would undermine their independent status—a fear confirmed by FIFA. Inrugby union was ranked the second most popular sport in the UK. Sport governing bodies in EnglandScotlandWales and Ireland organise and regulate the game separately.

Cricket was invented in England, and its laws were established by Marylebone Cricket Club in Team members are drawn from the main county sides, and include both English and Welsh players. Cricket is distinct from football and rugby where Wales and England field separate national teams, although Wales had fielded its own team in the past. Irish and Scottish players have played for England because neither Scotland nor Ireland have Test status and have only recently started to play in One Day Internationals.

There is a professional league championship in which clubs representing 17 English counties and 1 Welsh county compete. The modern game of tennis originated in Birmingham, England in the s, before spreading around the world. The UK has proved successful in the international sporting arena in rowing.

The UK is closely associated with motorsport. Many teams and drivers in Formula One F1 are based in the UK, and the country has won more drivers' and constructors' titles than any other.

The premier national auto racing event is the British Touring Car Championship. Golf is the sixth-most popular sport, by participation, in the UK. Rugby league originated in Huddersfield, West Yorkshire in and is generally played in Northern England.

Super League is the highest level of professional rugby league in the UK and Europe. The 'Queensberry rules'the code of general rules in boxingwas named after John Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry inthat formed the basis of modern boxing.

Sports-related fan groups provide an outlet for political dissidents in the UK. Inthe "Football Lads Alliance" caused concern among members of the country's cultural elites as this grassroots organization and a few others noisily protested the media and police cover-up of Asian-led rape gangs in Rotherham and elsewhere. This caused mainstream media outrage against the group, and led The Royal British Legion to turn down their charitable donations. Such groups and their members are likely to face criminal prosecution for opposing immigration or cultural replacement.

It was created in by the superimposition of the Flag of England on the Flag of Scotland and updated in with the addition of Saint Patrick's Flag. Wales is not represented in the Union Flag, as Wales had been conquered and annexed to England prior to the formation of the United Kingdom.

The possibility of redesigning the Union Flag to include representation of Wales has not been completely ruled out. Britannia is a national personification of the United Kingdom, originating from Roman Britain. She holds Poseidon 's three-pronged trident and a shield, bearing the Union Flag. Sometimes she is depicted as riding on the back of a lion. Since the height of the British Empire in the late 19th century, Britannia has often been associated with British maritime dominance, as in the patriotic song " Rule, Britannia!

Up untilthe lion symbol was depicted behind Britannia on the British fifty pence coin and on the back of the British ten pence coin. It is also used as a symbol on the non-ceremonial flag of the British Army. A second, less used, personification of the nation is the character John Bull.

The bulldog is sometimes used as a symbol of the United Kingdom and has been associated with Winston Churchill's defiance of Nazi Germany. Great Britain is made up of England, Scotland and Wales. From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core. Jump to: navigationsearch. This article is about the country. For the island, see Great Britain. For other uses, see United Kingdom disambiguation and UK disambiguation.

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British Biology - Various - The Brit Awards 2006. The Music Event Of The Year (Hybrid). See also: Britain place name and Terminology of the British Isles. See also: History of the British Isles. Main article: History of the United Kingdom. Main article: Geography of the United Kingdom. Main article: Climate of the United Kingdom. Biology - Various - The Brit Awards 2006.

The Music Event Of The Year (Hybrid) article: Administrative geography of the United Kingdom. Northern Ireland. The four countries of the United Kingdom. Main article: Government of the United Kingdom. Main article: Law of the United Kingdom. Main article: Foreign relations of the United Kingdom. Main article: British Armed Forces. Main article: Economy of the United Kingdom.

Main article: Science and technology in the United Kingdom. Main article: Transport in the United Kingdom. Main article: Energy in the United Kingdom. Main article: Water supply and sanitation in the United Kingdom. The upper-tier subdivisions of England are the nine regionsnow used primarily for statistical purposes. Eight of these have elected mayorsthe first elections for which took place on 4 May Councillors are elected by the first-past-the-post system in single-member wards or by the multi-member plurality system in multi-member wards.

For local government purposesScotland is divided into 32 council areaswith wide variation in both size and population. The cities of GlasgowEdinburgh, Aberdeen and Dundee are separate council areas, as is the Highland Councilwhich includes a third of Scotland's area but only just overpeople.

Local councils are made up of elected councillors, of whom there are 1,; [] they are paid a part-time salary. Elections are conducted by single transferable vote in multi-member wards that elect either three or four councillors. Each council elects a Provostor Convenorto chair meetings of the council and to act as a figurehead for the area.

Local government in Wales consists of 22 unitary authorities. All unitary authorities are led by a leader and cabinet elected by the council itself. These include the cities of Cardiff, Swansea and Newport, which are unitary authorities in their own right. Local government in Northern Ireland has since been organised into 26 district councils, each elected by single transferable vote.

Their powers are limited to services such as collecting waste, controlling dogs and maintaining parks and cemeteries. Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland each have their own government or executiveled by a first minister or, in the case of Northern Ireland, a diarchal first minister and deputy first ministerand a devolved unicameral legislature.

England, the largest country of the United Kingdom, has no devolved executive or legislature and is administered and legislated for directly by the UK's government and parliament on all issues. This situation has given rise to the so-called West Lothian questionwhich concerns the fact that members of parliament from Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland can vote, sometimes decisively, [] on matters that affect only England. The Scottish Government and Parliament have wide-ranging powers over any matter that has not been specifically reserved to the UK Parliament, including educationhealthcareScots law and local government.

The Executive is led by a diarchy representing unionist and nationalist members of the Assembly. The British and Irish governments co-operate on non-devolved matters affecting Northern Ireland through the British—Irish Intergovernmental Conferencewhich assumes the responsibilities of the Northern Ireland administration in the event of its non-operation. The UK does not have a codified constitution and constitutional matters are not among the powers devolved to Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland.

The United Kingdom has sovereignty over 17 territories which do not form part of the United Kingdom itself: 14 British Overseas Territories [31] and three Crown dependencies. Britain has willingly granted independence where it has been requested; and we will continue to do so where this is an option. The Crown dependencies are possessions of the Crownas opposed to overseas territories of the UK. By mutual agreement, the British Government manages the islands' foreign affairs and defence and the UK Parliament has the authority to legislate on their behalf.

Internationally, they are regarded as "territories for which the United Kingdom is responsible". The United Kingdom does not have a single legal system as Article 19 of the Treaty of Union provided for the continuation of Scotland's separate legal system.

Both English law, which applies in England and Walesand Northern Ireland law are based on common-law principles. The Supreme Court is the highest court in the land for both criminal and civil appeal cases in England, Wales and Northern Ireland and any decision it makes is binding on every other court in the same jurisdiction, often having a persuasive effect in other jurisdictions.

Scots law is a hybrid system based on both common-law and civil-law principles. The chief courts are the Court of Sessionfor civil cases, [] and the High Court of Justiciaryfor criminal cases. Both "not guilty" and "not proven" result in an acquittal. Crime in England and Wales increased in the period between andthough since that peak there has been an overall fall of 66 per cent in recorded crime from to[] according to crime statistics.

The prison population of England and Wales has increased to 86, giving England and Wales the highest rate of incarceration in Western Europe at perScotland's prisons are overcrowded but the prison population is shrinking. Britain's global presence and influence is further amplified through its trading relations, foreign investments, official development assistance and military engagements.

The Commander-in-Chief is the British monarchto whom members of the forces swear an oath of allegiance. The British armed forces played a key role in establishing the British Empire as the dominant world power in the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries.

By emerging victorious from conflicts, Britain has often been able to decisively influence world events. Since the end of the British Empire, the UK has remained a major military Biology - Various - The Brit Awards 2006.

The Music Event Of The Year (Hybrid). Following the end of the Cold Wardefence policy has a stated assumption that "the most demanding operations" will be undertaken as part of a coalition. According to sources which include the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute and the International Institute for Strategic Studiesthe UK has either the fourth- or the fifth-highest military expenditure.

Total defence spending amounts to 2. The UK has a partially regulated market economy. HM Treasuryled by the Chancellor of the Exchequeris responsible for developing and executing the government's public finance policy and economic policy. The Bank of England is the UK's central bank and is responsible for issuing notes and coins in the nation's currency, the pound sterling. Banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland retain the right to issue their own notes, subject to retaining enough Bank of England notes in reserve to cover their issue.

The pound sterling is the world's third-largest reserve currency after the US dollar and the euro. Following the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the European Union, the functioning of the UK internal economic market is enshrined by the United Kingdom Internal Market Act which ensures trade in goods and services continues without internal barriers across the four countries of the United Kingdom.

The Industrial Revolution started in the UK with an initial concentration on the textile industry, [] followed by other heavy industries such as shipbuildingcoal mining and steelmaking. Manufacturing remains a significant part of the economy but accounted for only Inthe UK produced around 1. The UK is a major centre for engine manufacturing: in around 2. BAE Systems plays a critical role in some of the world's biggest defence aerospace projects.

It is also a principal subcontractor on the F35 Joint Strike Fighter — the world's largest single defence project — for which it designs and manufactures a range of components. It also manufactures the Hawkthe world's most successful jet training aircraft.

Rolls-Royce is the world's second-largest aero-engine manufacturer. Its engines power more than 30 types of commercial aircraft and it has more than 30, engines in service in the civil and defence sectors. It is growing at a rate of 7. Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanised and efficient by European standards, producing about 60 per cent of food needs with less than 1. The UK retains a significant, though much reduced fishing industry.

It is also rich in a number of natural resources including coal, petroleum, natural gas, tin, limestone, iron ore, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, lead, silica and an abundance of arable land. In the final quarter ofthe UK economy officially entered recession for the first time since As a percentage of GDP, external debt is per cent, which is the third-highest in the world after Luxembourg and Iceland. England and Scotland were leading centres of the Scientific Revolution from the 17th century.

Major scientific discoveries from the 18th century include hydrogen by Henry Cavendish ; [] from the 20th century penicillin by Alexander Fleming[] and the structure of DNAby Francis Crick and others.

Scientific research and development remains important in British universities, with many establishing science parks to facilitate production and co-operation with industry.

A radial road network totals 29, miles 46, km of main roads, 2, miles 3, km of motorways andmileskm of paved roads. The rail network in the UK is the oldest such network in the world. The system consists of five high-speed main lines the West CoastEast CoastMidlandGreat Western and Great Easternwhich radiate from London to the rest of the country, augmented by regional rail lines and dense commuter networks within the major cities.

High Speed 1 is operationally separate from the rest of the network. The world's first passenger railway running on steam was the Stockton and Darlington Railwayopened on 27 September Just under five years later the world's first intercity railway was the Liverpool and Manchester Railwaydesigned by George Stephenson and opened by the Prime Minister, the Duke of Wellington on 15 September The network grew rapidly as a patchwork of literally hundreds of separate companies during the Victorian era.

In Great Britain, the British Rail network was privatised between andwhich was followed by a rapid rise in passenger numbers. The UK was ranked eighth among national European rail systems in the European Railway Performance Index assessing intensity of use, quality of service and safety. In the year from October to September UK airports handled a total of Inthe UK was the world's ninth-largest consumer of energy and the 15th-largest producer.

Inthe UK was the 13th-largest producer of natural gas in the world and the largest producer in the EU. Coal production played a key role in the UK economy in the 19th and 20th centuries. In the mids, million tonnes of coal were produced annually, not falling below million tonnes until the early s. During the s and s the industry was scaled back considerably.

Inthe UK produced In the late s, nuclear power plants contributed around 25 per cent of total annual electricity generation in the UK, but this has gradually declined as old plants have been shut down and ageing-related problems affect plant availability.

Inthe UK had 16 reactors normally generating about 19 per cent of its electricity. All but one of the reactors will be retired by Unlike Germany and Japan, the UK intends to build a new generation of nuclear plants from about The total of all renewable electricity sources provided for Access to improved water supply and sanitation in the UK is universal.

It is estimated that In England and Wales water and sewerage services are provided by 10 private regional water and sewerage companies and 13 mostly smaller private "water only" companies. In Scotland water and sewerage services are provided by a single public company, Scottish Water. In Northern Ireland water and sewerage services are also provided by a single public entity, Northern Ireland Water.

A census is taken simultaneously in all parts of the UK every 10 years. In mid and mid net long-term international migration contributed more to population growth. In mid and mid natural change contributed the most to population growth. Historically, indigenous British people were thought to be descended from the various ethnic groups that settled there before the 12th century: the CeltsRomans, Anglo-Saxons, Norse and the Normans.

Welsh people could be the oldest ethnic group in the UK. The UK has a history of non-white immigration with Liverpool having the oldest Black population in the country dating back to at least the s during the period of the African slave trade. During this period it is estimated the Afro-Caribbean population of Great Britain was 10, to 15, [] which later declined due to the abolition of slavery.

By this number had more than quadrupled to , just over 0. Since substantial immigration from Africa, the Caribbean and South Asia has been a legacy of ties forged by the British Empire.

Because of differences in the wording of the census forms used in England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, data on the Other White group is not available for the UK as a whole, but in England and Wales this was the fastest growing group between the and censuses, increasing by 1.

Ethnic diversity varies significantly across the UK. In the UK census The UK's de facto official language is English. Cornishwhich became extinct as a first language in the late 18th century, is subject to revival efforts and has a small group of second language speakers.

Over 92, people in Scotland just under 2 per cent of the population had some Gaelic language ability, including 72 per cent of those living in the Outer Hebrides. Scotsa language descended from early northern Middle Englishhas limited recognition alongside its regional variant, Ulster Scots in Northern Ireland, without specific commitments to protection and promotion. It is compulsory for pupils to study a second language up to the age of 14 in England.

All pupils in Wales are either taught Welsh as a second language up to age 16, or are taught in Welsh as a first language. Forms of Christianity have dominated religious life in what is now the United Kingdom for over 1, years. In the census This contrasted with growth in the other main religious group categories, with the number of Muslims increasing by the most substantial margin to a total of about 5 per cent.

In a survey conducted by BSA British Social Attitudes on religious affiliation; 53 per cent of respondents indicated ' no religion'while 41 per cent indicated they were Christians, followed by 6 per cent who affiliated with other religions e.

IslamHinduismJudaismetc. The Church of England is the established church in England. It is not subject to state controland the British monarch is an ordinary member, required to swear an oath to "maintain and preserve the Protestant Religion and Presbyterian Church Government " upon his or her accession. The United Kingdom has experienced successive waves of migration. London held around half of this population, and other small communities existed in Manchester, Bradford and elsewhere.

The German immigrant community was the largest group untilwhen it became second to Russian Jews. Aroundsettled permanently in Britain, becoming the largest ethnic minority from outside the British Isles; [] [] this population had increased toby In the immigration net increase wasImmigration was at , up frominwhile the number of emigrants leaving for over a year wasMany subsequently returned home, resulting in a net increase in the number of nationals of the new member states in the UK.

Immigration is now contributing to a rising population, [] with arrivals and UK-born children of migrants accounting for about half of the population increase between and Inapproximatelyforeign nationals were naturalised as British citizens, the highest number since This figure fell to aroundin Between andthe average British citizenships granted annually was, Inthe British Government introduced a points-based immigration system for immigration from outside the European Economic Area to replace former schemes, including the Scottish Government's Fresh Talent Initiative.

Emigration was an important feature of British society in the 19th century. Between andaround Estimates show that by the end of the 20th century, some million people of British and Irish descent were permanently settled around the globe. Education in the United Kingdom is a devolved matter, with each country having a separate education system. Considering the four systems together, about 38 per cent of the United Kingdom population has a university or college degreewhich is the highest percentage in Europe, and among the highest percentages in the world.

A government commission 's report in found that privately educated people comprise 7 per cent of the general population of the UK but much larger percentages of the top professions, the most extreme case quoted being 71 per cent of senior judges. Inmore than 57, children were being homeschooled in the United Kingdom. Whilst education in England is the responsibility of the Secretary of State for Educationthe day-to-day administration and funding of state schools is the responsibility of local authorities.

Two of the top 10 performing schools in terms of GCSE results in were state-run grammar schools. Inover half of places at the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge were taken by students from state schools, [] while the proportion of children in England attending private schools is around 7 per cent, which rises to 18 per cent of those over Education in Scotland is the responsibility of the Cabinet Secretary for Education and Lifelong Learningwith day-to-day administration and funding of state schools the responsibility of Local Authorities.

Two non-departmental public bodies have key roles in Scottish education. The Scottish Qualifications Authority is responsible for the development, accreditation, assessment and certification of qualifications other than degrees which are delivered at secondary schools, post-secondary colleges of further education and other centres.

A significant number of Welsh students are taught either wholly or largely in the Welsh language ; lessons in Welsh are compulsory for all until the age of Education in Northern Ireland is the responsibility of the Minister of Educationalthough responsibility at a local level is administered by the Education Authority which is further sub-divided into five geographical areas. Healthcare in the United Kingdom is a devolved matter and each country has its own system of private and publicly funded health care.

Public healthcare is provided to all UK permanent residents and is mostly free at the point of need, being paid for from general taxation. The World Health Organizationinranked the provision of healthcare in the United Kingdom as fifteenth best in Europe and eighteenth in the world.

Political and operational responsibility for healthcare lies with four national executives ; healthcare in England is the responsibility of the UK Government; healthcare in Northern Ireland is the responsibility of the Northern Ireland Executive ; healthcare in Scotland is the responsibility of the Scottish Government ; and healthcare in Wales is the responsibility of the Welsh Government. Each National Health Service has different policies and priorities, resulting in contrasts.

The culture of the United Kingdom has been influenced by many factors including: the nation's island status; its history as a western liberal democracy and a major power; as well as being a political union of four countries with each preserving elements of distinctive traditions, customs and symbolism.

As a result of the British EmpireBritish influence can be observed in the languageculture and legal systems of many of its former colonies including AustraliaCanadaIndiaIrelandNew ZealandPakistanSouth Africa and the United States ; a common culture coined today as the Anglosphere. The substantial cultural influence of the United Kingdom has led it to be described as a "cultural superpower". Most British literature is in the English language. Insomebooks were published in the United Kingdom and in it was the largest publisher of books in the world.

The English playwright and poet William Shakespeare is widely regarded as the greatest dramatist of all time. Scotland's contributions include the detective writer Arthur Conan Doyle the creator of Sherlock Holmesromantic literature by Sir Walter Scottthe children's writer J. Gunn contributed to the Scottish Renaissance. A more grim outlook is found in Ian Rankin 's stories and the psychological horror-comedy of Iain Banks. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest European poets of his age.

Daniel Owen is credited as the first Welsh-language novelist, publishing Rhys Lewis in The best-known of the Anglo-Welsh poets are both Thomases. Dylan Thomas became famous on both sides of the Atlantic in the midth century. He is remembered for his poetry — his " Do not go gentle into that good night ; Rage, rage against the dying of the light" is one of the most quoted couplets of English language verse — and for his "play for voices", Under Milk Wood.

The influential Church in Wales "poet-priest" and Welsh nationalist R. Thomas was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in There have been a number of authors whose origins were from outside the United Kingdom but who moved to the UK and became British. These include Joseph Conrad[] T. Sir Harrison Birtwistle is one of the foremost living composers. George Frideric Handel became a naturalised British citizen and wrote the British coronation anthem, while some of his best works, such as Messiahwere written in the English language.

His works have dominated London's West End since the late 20th century and have also been a commercial success worldwide. The UK does not have a codified constitution and constitutional matters are not among the powers devolved to Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland. The United Kingdom has sovereignty over 17 territories which do not form part of the United Kingdom itself: 14 British Overseas Territories [31] and three Crown dependencies. Britain has willingly granted independence where it has been requested; and we will continue to do so where this is an option.

The Crown dependencies are possessions of the Crownas opposed to overseas territories of the UK. By mutual agreement, the British Government manages the islands' foreign affairs and defence and the UK Parliament has the authority to legislate on their behalf. Internationally, they are regarded as "territories for which the United Kingdom is responsible". The United Kingdom does not have a single legal system as Article 19 of the Treaty of Union provided for the continuation of Scotland's separate legal system.

Both English law, which applies in England and Walesand Northern Ireland law are based on common-law principles. The Supreme Court is the highest court in the land for both criminal and civil appeal cases in England, Wales and Northern Ireland and any decision it makes is binding on every other court in the same jurisdiction, often having a persuasive effect in other jurisdictions.

Scots law is a hybrid system based on both common-law and civil-law principles. The chief courts are the Court of Sessionfor civil cases, [] and the High Court of Justiciaryfor criminal cases.

Both "not guilty" and "not proven" result in an acquittal. Crime in England and Wales increased in the period between andthough since that peak there has been an overall fall of 66 per cent in recorded crime from to[] according to crime statistics. The prison population of England and Wales has increased to 86, giving England and Wales the highest rate of incarceration in Western Europe at perScotland's prisons are overcrowded but the prison population is shrinking.

Britain's global presence and influence is further amplified through its trading relations, foreign investments, official development assistance and military engagements.

The Commander-in-Chief is the British monarchto whom members of the forces swear an oath of allegiance. The British armed forces played a key role in establishing the British Empire as the dominant world power in the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries. By emerging victorious from conflicts, Britain has often been able to decisively influence world events.

Since the end of the British Empire, the UK has remained a major military power. Following the end of the Cold Wardefence policy has a stated assumption that "the most demanding operations" will be undertaken as part of a coalition.

According to sources which include the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute and the International Institute for Strategic Studiesthe UK has either the fourth- or the fifth-highest military expenditure. Total defence spending amounts to 2. The UK has a partially regulated market economy. HM Treasuryled by the Chancellor of the Exchequeris responsible for developing and executing the government's public finance policy and economic policy.

The Bank of England is the UK's central bank and is responsible for issuing notes and coins in the nation's currency, the pound sterling. Banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland retain the right to issue their own notes, subject to retaining enough Bank of England notes in reserve to cover their issue. The pound sterling is the world's third-largest reserve currency after the US dollar and the euro. Following the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the European Union, the functioning of the UK internal economic market is enshrined by the United Kingdom Internal Market Act which ensures trade in goods and services continues without internal barriers across the four countries of the United Kingdom.

The Industrial Revolution started in the UK with an initial concentration on the textile industry, [] followed by other heavy industries such as shipbuildingcoal mining and steelmaking. Manufacturing remains a significant part of the economy but accounted for only Inthe UK produced around 1.

The UK is a major centre for engine manufacturing: in around 2. BAE Systems plays a critical role in some of the world's biggest defence aerospace projects. It is also a principal subcontractor on the F35 Joint Strike Fighter — the world's largest single defence project — for which it designs and manufactures a range of components. It also manufactures the Hawkthe world's most successful jet training aircraft.

Rolls-Royce is the world's second-largest aero-engine manufacturer. Its engines power more than 30 types of commercial aircraft and it has more than 30, engines in service in the civil and defence sectors.

It is growing at a rate of 7. Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanised and efficient by European standards, producing about 60 per cent of food needs with less than 1. The UK retains a significant, though much reduced fishing industry. It is also rich in a number of natural resources including coal, petroleum, natural gas, tin, limestone, iron ore, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, lead, silica and an abundance of arable land.

In the final quarter ofthe UK economy officially entered recession for the first time since As a percentage of GDP, external debt is per cent, which is the third-highest in the world after Luxembourg and Iceland. England and Scotland were leading centres of the Scientific Revolution from the 17th century. Major scientific discoveries from the 18th century include hydrogen by Henry Cavendish ; [] from the 20th century penicillin by Alexander Fleming[] and the structure of DNAby Francis Crick and others.

Scientific research and development remains important in British universities, with many establishing science parks to facilitate production and co-operation with industry. A radial road network totals 29, miles 46, km of main roads, 2, miles 3, km of motorways andmileskm of paved roads. The rail network in the UK is the oldest such network in the world. The system consists of five high-speed main lines the West CoastEast CoastMidlandGreat Western and Great Easternwhich radiate from London to the rest of the country, augmented by regional rail lines and dense commuter networks within the major cities.

High Speed 1 is operationally separate from the rest of the network. The world's first passenger railway running on steam was the Stockton and Darlington Railwayopened on 27 September Just under five years later the world's first intercity railway was the Liverpool and Manchester Railwaydesigned by George Stephenson and opened by the Prime Minister, the Duke of Wellington on 15 September The network grew rapidly as a patchwork of literally hundreds of separate companies during the Victorian era.

In Great Britain, the British Rail network was privatised between andwhich was followed by a rapid rise in passenger numbers. The UK was ranked eighth among national European rail systems in the European Railway Performance Index assessing intensity of use, quality of service and safety. In the year from October to September UK airports handled a total of Inthe UK was the world's ninth-largest consumer of energy and the 15th-largest producer.

Inthe UK was the 13th-largest producer of natural gas in the world and the largest producer in the EU. Coal production played a key role in the UK economy in the 19th and 20th centuries.

In the mids, million tonnes of coal were produced annually, not falling below million tonnes until the early s. During the s and s the industry was scaled back considerably.

Inthe UK produced In the late s, nuclear power plants contributed around 25 per cent of total annual electricity generation in the UK, but this has gradually declined as old plants have been shut down and ageing-related problems affect plant availability.

Inthe UK had 16 reactors normally generating about 19 per cent of its electricity. All but one of the reactors will be retired by Unlike Germany and Japan, the UK intends to build a new generation of nuclear plants from about The total of all renewable electricity sources provided for Access to improved water supply and sanitation in the UK is universal.

It is estimated that In England and Wales water and sewerage services are provided by 10 private regional water and sewerage companies and 13 mostly smaller private "water only" companies. In Scotland water and sewerage services are provided by a single public company, Scottish Water. In Northern Ireland water and sewerage services are also provided by a single public entity, Northern Ireland Water. A census is taken simultaneously in all parts of the UK every 10 years. In mid and mid net long-term international migration contributed more to population growth.

In mid and mid natural change contributed the most to population growth. Historically, indigenous British people were thought to be descended from the various ethnic groups that settled there before the 12th century: the CeltsRomans, Anglo-Saxons, Norse and the Normans. Welsh people could be the oldest ethnic group in the UK.

The UK has a history of non-white immigration with Liverpool having the oldest Black population in the country dating back to at least the s during the period of the African slave trade.

During this period it is estimated the Afro-Caribbean population of Great Britain was 10, to 15, [] which later declined due to the abolition of slavery. By this number had more than quadrupled to , just over 0. Since substantial immigration from Africa, the Caribbean and South Asia has been a legacy of ties forged by the British Empire. Because of differences in the wording of the census forms used in England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, data on the Other White group is not available for the UK as a whole, but in England and Wales this was the fastest growing group between the and censuses, increasing by 1.

Ethnic diversity varies significantly across the UK. In the UK census The UK's de facto official language is English. Cornishwhich became extinct as a first language in the late 18th century, is subject to revival efforts and has a small group of second language speakers. Over 92, people in Scotland just under 2 per cent of the population had some Gaelic language ability, including 72 per cent of those living in the Outer Hebrides.

Scotsa language descended from early northern Middle Englishhas limited recognition alongside its regional variant, Ulster Scots in Northern Ireland, without specific commitments to protection and promotion. It is compulsory for pupils to study a second language up to the age of 14 in England.

All pupils in Wales are either taught Welsh as a second language up to age 16, or are taught in Welsh as a first language. Forms of Christianity have dominated religious life in what is now the United Kingdom for over 1, years. In the census This contrasted with growth in the other main religious group categories, with the number of Muslims increasing by the most substantial margin to a total of about 5 per cent. In a survey conducted by BSA British Social Attitudes on religious affiliation; 53 per cent of respondents indicated ' no religion'while 41 per cent indicated they were Christians, followed by 6 per cent who affiliated with other religions e.

IslamHinduismJudaismetc. The Church of England is the established church in England. It is not subject to state controland the British monarch is an ordinary member, required to swear an oath to "maintain and preserve the Protestant Religion and Presbyterian Church Government " upon his or her accession. The United Kingdom has experienced successive waves of migration. London held around half of this population, and other small communities existed in Manchester, Bradford and elsewhere.

The German immigrant community was the largest group untilwhen it became second to Russian Jews. Aroundsettled permanently in Britain, becoming the largest ethnic minority from outside the British Isles; [] [] this population had increased toby In the immigration net increase wasImmigration was at , up frominwhile the number of emigrants leaving for over a year wasMany subsequently returned home, resulting in a net increase in the number of nationals of the new member states in the UK.

Immigration is now contributing to a rising population, [] with arrivals and UK-born children of migrants accounting for about half of the population increase between and Inapproximatelyforeign nationals were naturalised as British citizens, the highest number since This figure fell to aroundin Between andthe average British citizenships granted annually was, Inthe British Government introduced a points-based immigration system for immigration from outside the European Economic Area to replace former schemes, including the Scottish Government's Fresh Talent Initiative.

Emigration was an important feature of British society in the 19th century. Between andaround Estimates show that by the end of the 20th century, some million people of British and Irish descent were permanently settled around the globe. Education in the United Kingdom is a devolved matter, with each country having a separate education system. Considering the four systems together, about 38 per cent of the United Kingdom population has a university or college degreewhich is the highest percentage in Europe, and among the highest percentages in the world.

A government commission 's report in found that privately educated people comprise 7 per cent of the general population of the UK but much larger percentages of the top professions, the most extreme case quoted being 71 per cent of senior judges. Inmore than 57, children were being homeschooled in the United Kingdom. Whilst education in England is the responsibility of the Secretary of State for Educationthe day-to-day administration and funding of state schools is the responsibility of local authorities.

Two of the top 10 performing schools in terms of GCSE results in were state-run grammar schools. Inover half of places at the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge were taken by students from state schools, [] while the proportion of children in England attending private schools is around 7 per cent, which rises to 18 per cent of those over Education in Scotland is the responsibility of the Cabinet Secretary for Education and Lifelong Learningwith day-to-day administration and funding of state schools the responsibility of Local Authorities.

Two non-departmental public bodies have key roles in Scottish education. The Scottish Qualifications Authority is responsible for the development, accreditation, assessment and certification of qualifications other than degrees which are delivered at secondary schools, post-secondary colleges of further education and other centres.

A significant number of Welsh students are taught either wholly or largely in the Welsh language ; lessons in Welsh are compulsory for all until the age of Education in Northern Ireland is the responsibility of the Minister of Educationalthough responsibility at a local level is administered by the Education Authority which is further sub-divided into five geographical areas.

Healthcare in the United Kingdom is a devolved matter and each country has its own system of private and publicly funded health care. Public healthcare is provided to all UK permanent residents and is mostly free at the point of need, being paid for from general taxation. The World Health Organizationinranked the provision of healthcare in the United Kingdom as fifteenth best in Europe and eighteenth in the world.

Political and operational responsibility for healthcare lies with four national executives ; healthcare in England is the responsibility of the UK Government; healthcare in Northern Ireland is the responsibility of the Northern Ireland Executive ; healthcare in Scotland is the responsibility of the Scottish Government ; and healthcare in Wales is the responsibility of the Welsh Government.

Each National Health Service has different policies and priorities, resulting in contrasts.

1989 - Levin Goes Lightly - Neo Romantic (Vinyl, LP, Album), She Gets What She Wants - Apocalipps - Foodchain (CD, Album), Country Reel (a) - Frank Ricotti / Ray Russell - Jingles 3 (Vinyl, LP), Half Way Home (Bonus Track) - Threshold (3) - Psychedelicatessen (Vinyl, LP, Album), Love Street - The Doors - Weird Scenes Inside The Gold Mine (8-Track Cartridge), SWonderfull - The Claude Williamson Trio - Plays Gershwin (Vinyl, LP), Hells Breath - Exodus (6) - And Then Were...300 (Vinyl, LP, Album), Dont Let The Sun Catch You Crying, A Pathetic Attempt At An Apathetic Approach - Half Hearted Hero - Defining. Refining. (CD, Album), That Way - Carolyn Wonderland And The Imperial Monkeys - Truck Stop Favorites Vol. 2 (CD, Album)