Where am I going, the way I do things, why is everything so strange and far away now? In New York City, where Peter repairs to Manhattanand where the Martins of Galloway now live in Brooklynthat strange feeling of discontinuity and fragmentation seeks complete evaporation: Everything that he had ever done in his life, everything there waswas haunted now by a deep sense of loss, confusion, and strange neargrief. Such sorrows surrounding the ghostly void of lostness, however, give birth to the energized joy of new beginningsnew friends, loves, parents to know and meet again in the city.
What was all the excitement and mystery and sadness in his soul? In looking into the enig. What creative force could both account and honor this life in all its varieties of experience and mood? Something complete, and wise, and brutal too, had dreamed this world into existence, this world in which he wandered haunted. Something silent, beautiful, inscrutable had made all this for sure, and he was in the middle of it, among the children of the earth.
And he was glad Kerouacs vision of the divine resembles Pascals Jansenistic-tinged view of the Christian god; he is a God who fills the soul and heart of those whom he possesses; he is a God who makes them inwardly conscious of their wretchedness and of his infinite mercy; who unites himself with them in the depths of their soul; who fills it with humility, with joy, with trust, with love.
Peter Martin is drawn into this scene and the great molecular comedown of maddening Spenglerian visions offered by his friend Leon Levinsky Allen Ginsberg. The energy behind the challenging social vision is wild and explosive, and the vision itself decadent and beat. It is all telescoped into the Nickel-O, an amusement center on Times Square where occur the final scenes of disintegrative decay: old drunks, whores, queers, all kinds of characters, hoods, junkies, all the castoffs of bourgeois society milling in there.
You see how bright the lights are? All faces are blue and greenish and sickly livid. In the end, everyone looks like a Zombie, you realize that everyone is dead, locked up in the sad psychoses of themselves. It goes on all night, everyone. Levinsky goes on to explain the atom-smashing physics underlying the sordid vision of the Nickel-O and the resulting feelings of spiritual geekishness: Its the great molecular comedown. Its really an atomic disease, you see.
Its death finally reclaiming life, the scurvy of the soul at last, a kind of universal cancer. Everybody is going to fall apart, disintegrate, all character-structures based on tradition and uprightness and so-called morality will slowly rot away.
Dont you see, its just the beginning of the end of the Geneseean world Peter, amused and skeptical and, for the moment, molecularly intact, admits to himself that Levinsky may be on to something: For a moment he was almost afraid that there was some truth in Levinskys insane idea, certainly he had never felt so useless and foolish and sorrowful before in his life.
As if to enact the vision, Levinsky and Martin take a subway ride uptown. During the ride, Levinsky, in an effort to expose the paranoid persecution madness latent in humanity, victimizes the underground passengers with his magical newspaper performance, in which he singles out someone and stares intently through a hole in the paper.
There, with an awful shock, instead of headlines [one] saw a great living picture, the beady glittering eyes of a madman burning triumphantly. The prank has the intended effect on most passengers, and Peter realizes the small pitiable truth in [Levinskys] statement that everyone in the subway was somewhat insane.
But the experiment was not a total success, and this grants Peter some levity and release, for there were those who enjoyed the performance, who stared with delight at Levinskys antics. A little boy actually joins in the performance, sticking his head in the other side of the hole in the newspaper, a funny face-off that Leon did not bargain for. This act breaks the spell of the mad magic, causing it to backfire, as now Levinsky becomes the one to fidget and blush.
Leon rationalizes: children cannot recognize madness. But for Peter, and for Kerouac, the incident restores a primal belief in the innocent goodness of humanity, for Levinskys predicted molecular comedown mutated into his comeuppance. The vision of the Nickel-O is thus suspended and absorbed into a more cosmic reality: When he last saw him, Levinsky was standing there among the subway crowds, gaping around and musing darkly about the puzzle of himself and everybody else, as he would always do Although Peter does not dismiss outright Levinskys vision of the Nickel-O, his own sense of divine oneness in the order of the world leads him to accept the view from the bottom of the city without making invidious distinctions.
Taking in the view of Times Square addicts, hoodlums, zoot-suiters, drifters, panhandlers, and assorted denizens, Peter reflects a Christ-like identification with the outcasts: He knew all these things and they were impressed in his heart, they horrified him.
These were only some of the lives of the world, yet all the lives of the world came from the single human soul, and his soul was like their souls. He could never turn away in disgust and judgment As Peter is drawn even further into the interesting and complex beat subculture, he lives out a bohemian version of the decadent vision. Will Dennison William S. The events that transpire document the first appearance of the Beats in literaturethe spark that helped to ignite the cultural revolution of the s.
But for Kerouac, that spark was the light of revealed truth and the revolutionary thrust of Catholic tradition engulfing new cultural forms of being and expression. As Merton asserts, there is always this kind of revolutionary force inherent in the tradition, especially given its opposition to the egocentric desires and obsessions of humankind: money, prestige, possessions, power, knowledge, etc.
If one is to follow Christs example of poverty, humility, and suffering a trinity that captivated Kerouac even as he moved into his Buddhist phaseone has no choice but to practice renunciation and wander in the ruins of materialistic American civilization. Be poor, go down into the far end of society, take the last place among men, live with those who are despised, love other men and serve them instead of making them serve you.
Peters deepening involvement in the beat subculture, however, is not without its conflicts, and therein lies the tension between the town and the city, between traditional and modern social mores and val. George Martin, bewildered by the youth of the city, states his moral argument to his son: Understand this generation knows right and wrong, they sense it all right and thats probably why they do so many crazy things, like those friends of yours.
It makes them jumpy and neurotic. But they dont believe in right and wrong. Theres a big difference thereand what Id like to know is how this all came about. What are they teaching nowadays thats doing so much, so much to separate the children of this generation from their parents? In part, Mr. Martin attributes the lack of responsibility, concern, and hope among the young to the malaise caused by the war. And he accuses his son Peter of hanging around with dope fiends and crooks and crackpots.
Still sold on them, hey? Peter defends himself and his choice of friends, chalking it up to curiosity: they arent exactly like the boys who used to hang around the barbershop with you in Galloway, you know. This is New York. I only mean that these guys. Although the old man clearly doesnt buy it, the son rages on: I dont swallow that stuff about curiosity, Peter.
I dont know whats happened to you, frankly. It all went wrong long ago, youre another victim. I do whatever I like!
If Im curious, I am! If Im interested in certain people, I am! Im not a victim of Album) Im going to live in this world, Im going to find out all about it, Im not going to hide my eyes like a maiden in distress, or like an old Puritan either, or like a scared rabbit! Im interested in life, any kind of life, all of it!. Ever since I can remember youve been telling me what not to do, what not to do.
But you never did tell me what to do! Im not God, I cant tell you what to do, all I can tell you is what I think you should do. For all I know youll end up a dope fiend yourself, a bum, a tramp, no better than the ones you hang around with. You threw away an education, you make a little money on ships and you spend it drinking and supporting a little slut Shes not that at all.
Its just another way of saying Im a nogood bum, go ahead and admit it! So I drink, all right, I have my rea. Whats the great thing were supposed to be living for now anyway? Whats the great faith, hope and charity of the age thats been dumped on our heads And so it goes, on into the early morning, but before the argument ends Mr. Martin gets the last thought in: Something evil and awful has happened, theres nothing but unhappiness everywhere. And the coldness of everybody!
The metropolitan stamp of indifference is a far cry from the innocence, closeness, warmth, and real lives of the working people of Galloway. The social distance is registered every time the Martins look up from their basement flat in Brooklyn and witness a huge advert laid out in crude design, revealing a man holding his head in despair.
Some indistinct writing beside him, blurred and dirtied by weathers and soot, proclaimed the indispensability of some forgotten medicine The eyes of Fitzgeralds Dr. Eckleberg from The Great Gatsby get fleshed out by Kerouac two decades later.
In an attempt to reverse the familial temperature, Peter suddenly invites his parents out to dinner with him and his girlfriend. Martin are stunned into acceptance. As Peter leaves for Manhattan, he is in no way embittered by the heated discourse with his father. Catching sight of his father from the street, enshrouded in his literal subterranean Brooklyn gloom, lifts Peter back again to the transcendent level of existence.
The son steps lively into a subway reverie, where thoughts float up and coalesce, binding all those moral questions and generational differences into an encompassing frameworkthe felt and intellectual experience of the divine in humankind. The most beautiful idea on the face of the earth. But he recalled sorrowfully that when the child grew up and sought advice he got only fumbling earnest human words, when the child sought a way of some sort he only found that his fathers way was not enough, and the child was left cold with the realization that nobody, not even his father, really knew what to do.
And yet, that children and fathers should have a notion in their souls that there must be a way, an authority, a great knowledge, a vision, a view of life, a proper manner, an order in all the disorder and sadness of the worldthat alone must be God in men. The dialectical processthe friction of town and citysharpens Peters insight into a universal truth, a mystical understanding of a living God based on Catholic tradition, that he will pursue and absorb.
Peter gives assent to such faith and to Mertons notion that God himself is infinite actuality and therefore infinite Truth, Wisdom, Power and Providence, and can reveal Himself with absolute certitude in any manner. In the novel, such disorder and darkness occur back-to-back. To begin with, Peters involvement with the beat crowd eventually culminates in his being ensnared in a scandalthe suicide of Waldo Meister in actuality, WaldoDavid Kammererwas killed by Lucien Carr in retaliation for his amorous harassments.
Peter as was Kerouac is called in by police as a material witness and asked to identify the badly bruised and mashed body. The whole affair awakens Peter to the sordidness of his city life, and he longs for the sounds of an older and more earnest America: voices without sarcasm and weariness and disgust, strong voices telling in a long way the chronicle of labor and belief and human joy However, the hope for the assured voices of the frontier and town weaken in the wake of his fathers failing health.
After a period of self-imposed exile, Peter finally returns to his family in Brooklyn so that he can be with his father who is dying. In the process, Peter makes a pivotal moral decision and resolves to nurture those values that he finds more aligned with his Catholic spiritual sensibility: A sharp knowledge had now come to him of the tragic aloneness of existence and the need of beating it off with love and devotion instead of surrendering to it with that perverse, cruel, unnecessary selfinfliction that he saw everywhere around him, that he himself had nursed for so long.
His father was dyingand his own life was dying, it had come to a dead end in the city, he had nowhere else to go. Peter did not know what to do with his own life but somehow he knew what to do about his father, who was now not only his father, but his brother and his mysterious son too.
But such togetherness is no longer the occasion for rejoicing. Rather, an atmosphere of debilitation, pain, and loss pervades, along with the values of care and compassion, the poignant bond of our mortality. Living at home in Brooklyn, Peter takes on a lonely dishrag of a night-time job that ticked away in the dreary midnights of city-time and city-blackness.
Time itself and the ultimate all-unknowing blankness that it promises is now the antagonist, dissolving the opposition between town and city into eerie images of gray dawns and pale flowers. George Martin, wasting away throughout the Winter and into the Spring in the midst of dreadful wreckage, gives God a good talking-to during the odd, sleepless nights: He raised his face mournfully to the poor cracked ceiling of midnight, he looked at heaven through the plaster-cracks of Brooklyn.
He asked God why he had been made by Him, for what purpose, for what reason the flower of his own face and the fading of it from the earth forever; why life was so short, so hard, so furious with men, so impossibly mortal, so cruel, restless, sweet, so deadly. And he talked to the lone self that would die with him for always.
And when Peter came back in the mornings, the old man asked him what had happened all night in the cafeteria. And then father and son looked at each other, and talked about the past, all the things in the millionshadowed blazing past, and about what they would like to do, what they might have done, what they should do now. At these times they experienced moments of contentment talking to each other. This was the last life they would ever know each other in, and yet they wished they could live a hundred lives and do a thousand things and know each other forever in a million new ways, they wished this in the midst of their last life.
Caring for his father and sharing their final moments together helps Peter to grow and recognize the fundamental virtues of living what ITs all about.
He saw that it was love and work and true hope. He saw that all the love in the world, which was sweet and fine, was not love at all without its work, and that work could not exist without the kindness of hope. Together father and son attain an understanding about lifes telosincluding its troubles and difficulties and strugglesat times calling existence itself into question: They did that every day, yet they did not hate life, they loved it.
They saw that life was like a kind of work, a poor miserable disconnected frag. Until his fathers death, the mood of the household alternates from black to white as if Kerouac wishes to remind the reader that dying is, after all, an intensified state of living, an acrobatic flight from the abyss to the veranda and back again.
Life without end until the miracle of everyday heartbeat stops. Father to son on his death-chair: Thats right, my poor little boy, implying that this is whats in store for him in time.
Son to father on the following page, after he discovers him dead: You poor old man, you poor old man! It gets worse. Just before his fathers plunge into sickness, Peter receives word that his close boyhood friend Alexander was killed in action in Italy. And shortly after his fathers death his younger brother Charles is dug up from the rubble of an Okinawan battlefield. The literal comedown of death reclaiming life seems more and more justified with each passing day, and with it the suffering awful knowledge and experience of hopelessness.
During his fathers funeral, held in New Hampshire, back to Mr. Martins beginning near the old Martin farm, Peter begins to turn such knowledge into cold-blooded aquatic wisdom fit for poor fish as well as, in Holmess words, uprooted, bereft, helpless, persevering humankind. During the long wake, brothers Joe, Peter, and Francis steal away to do some fishing, figuring the old man wouldnt begrudge them a brief respite from the satin mournfulness and eager throngs of consoling relatives and friends pouring into the small town of Nashua.
While Joe fishes, Peter, now even more sensitized to the pain and struggle existing in nature, is enmeshed in the web of an inescapable truth. It begins when Joe hooks a black bass and ends in compassionate comprehension of the sorrows he must bear. Peter could not take his eyes off the struggling enchained fish.
He watched its gaping eyes almost with terror. Unaccountably he remembered something he had read a few days before, in the New Testament, something about Jesus and his fishermen casting their nets in the sea In his allusion to MatthewKerouac gives an interesting twist to the. For Peter, with one eye on the fish and the other on humankind, everything alive is eventually caught, torn, and doomed for certain suffering. The only question that remains is when.
The fishermen cast away only to reel in a cruel oscillation of nature: This is what happens to all of us, this is what happens to all of us!
Back and forth, back and forth, with a hook in his mouth. And, for Peter, there seems no other possible way for him to exist other than in pain and loss, as though he himself had a hook torn through his mouth and was chained to the mystery of his own dumb incomprehension Peter is swept away by his insight, and casts his own line, conveying the knowledge to Joe and Francis.
Joe gets somewhat aggravated and Francis tries to joke playfully and evade the whole matter. But Peter, baiting and bobbing skillfully, persists with his passionate sermon. What the hell you want me to do, called Joe, throw it back? Francis enters the fray: Its all right, hes only meddling in Gods system.
Peter and Francis go one-on-one in a dialogue between faith and disbelief: Im not God, Im not supposed to meddle, cried Peter, staring at [Francis] worriedly, and even if I could, say if I had the power of miracle, I couldnt alleviate the suffering without breaking up Gods purpose in the whole thing. There, perhaps, is the cream of the jest. What are we supposed to do in a suffering world. Thats not enough to satisfy the big feeling we might have of wanting everything and wanting to like everything.
How can we be fair in an unfair situation like that? Why do you insist so much? Betray And Degrade Something Else Let You Down Against the Wall Let Me Heal Saviours Nothing Left Count Me Out Emotionless Sell My Soul. The Triumph of Ascending Majesty Alfo they hati for armour, Corflets, coats of Mayle,and Jackes.
They had moreover three great Peeces of caft Iron,fiftecn fmall peeces of braffe, and ten hundred weight ofpowder, withftoreof ftior, befides a hundred thoufand Indians, men of warre. OnWhitfunday all the Spaniards came into the fieldthat great plaine below the high mountainc fpoken of before, where Corttz. To Gonzilode Sandoval, who was the third Captaine heegave three and twenty horfemen, and a hundred and threefcore footmen, two peeces of Ordnance, and forty thoufand Indianswith Commiflion to choofe a place to pitch his campe.
In every Vergantine hee planted a petce or Ordnance foe Hargabufties, or CrofiV bowes, and three and twenty Spaniards, men moil fit for that purpofe. Hee appointed alfo Captaines for each, and himfelfe for General! Cortez little efteemed their words- for although therewas more danger in the land then in the water, yet it did more import to have greater care in the Warres by water, then on the land, becaufe his men had bene in the oneand not in the other.
All this preparation for the fiege of Mexico by land and water with above a hundred thoufand Indians, beiidesthe Spanirds above men- 1. Some wealth likewife they Album) by CWj their Cedar trees which grow there, and are ready timber for the buildings of Mexico.
Yetnowalfo are thefe Cedars much decayed by the Spaniards, who have waited and fpoiled them in their too too fumptuous buildings. Coruz onely wasaccufed by famjilo deNarvaez for that hee had fpent feven thoufand beames of Cedar trees in the worke of Ms owne houfe hardens there were in Tezcvco formerly, that had a thoufand Cedar trees for walls and circuity fomeof them of a hundred and twenty foot Iong,and twelve foot in corn- pane from end to end; but now that Garden that hath fifty Cedar trees about it is much regarded.
To the Dominicans belonged this houfe called St. This wee enjoyed without dores-; but within wee had all forts a ud varieties both of fiih and fleih.
What moft wee wondred at, was the abundat ce of fweet- Meats ; and efpecially of Conferves that were provided for us ; for to everyone of us during the time of our abode there, was brought on Munday morning halfe a dozen Boxes of Conferveof Quinces, and other fruits, befides our Biskets, tollayour ftomackes in the mornings and at other times of the day ; for in our itomackes we found a great difference betweene Spain and that Countrey.
But fecondly, hee told mee that the Climate of ihort thofe parts had this effect, to produce a faire hew, but little matter or fubltance. Our Conferves therefore and dainties were plentifully allowed us ; and all other in- courageraents and no occafion denied us of going to vific Mexico, which was not two full miles from usj all the while wee abode there.
It was a pleafant walke for us to goe out in the morning,and to fpend all the day in the City and come home at night; our way lying by Arches madeot tone, three miles long tp convey the water from CbajneJtepec unto the City, Take therefore,gentle Reader, from mee what for the fpace of five moneths I could learne concerning it in former and prefent times. The fitua- tion of this City is much like that of Venice. That part which ftandeth, is whoIefome,good,and fweetand yeeld- cth ftoreof fmall fifli.
The fait Lake containeth fifteen miles in breadth, and fifteen in length, and more then five and forty in Circuite and the Lake of fweet water containeth even ; as much; in fuch fort that the whole Lake containeth much abouta hundred miles. But thefe give no reafon for the faltneiTe of it, without it bee the agitation of it in the eb- bing and flowing; which not being with tides Hke the Sea, but with the winds one- ly which indeed make it as ftormy fometimes as is the Sea why may not the winds produce the fame effect in the frtfli water Lake?
Butwhatfoever the tiuereafon bee, there is not the like Lakeknovvneoffweet and faltiihwater,one part breeding fiih,the other breeding none at all. Nay two yeers before I came from thole part? I was credibly informed that a million of Ind'. This City when Cortez firft entred into it, was as fome fay of fixty, but more probably icis reported to have beene of fourefcore thou fand houfes. LMomezuma his palace was very great,large and beautifulJ, which in the Indian language was named Tc- fac.
It had three Courts 5 and in the one ftood a faire Fountaine,many hals, anda hundred chambers ofthree and twenty, and thirty foot long, an hundred bathe»and hot houfes ; and all this without nailes, yet very good uoikmanfbip. The beds onely were unieeming this great tiate, very poore and of no value, fuch as to this day the beftand richeft Indians ufe- for they weare nothing but mantles laid upon mattes,or upon hey, or elie mattes alone. With- in this Palace lived a thoufand women, nay fome aflirme three thoufandreckoning gentlewomenfervants and flaves, all together ; But the moft were pi incipajl I duns daughters; of whom Montezuma tooke for himfelfe thofe that liked him beft,and the others heegavein marriage to gentlemen hi» fervants.
There did belong to that houfe above three hundred pcrfons of in vice, who had their feverall charge concerning theie Fowles ; fome had care to cleanfc the Pond? In which houfe there were many high Halls, wherein were'kept men, women, and children, fuch as were dwarfes, crook- backs or any monttrous perfons, aad with them fuch as were born white of colour, which did very feldome happen; nay fome would deform their chil- dren on purpofe to have them carried to the Kings houie,to helpeto let forth his great- neffe by their deformity.
This houfe had for dai- ly allowance five hundred Turkey cocks, and three hundred men of fervice, befides the Falconers and Hunters, which fome fay were above a thouiand men. The Hunters were maintained in that houfe, becaufe of the ravenous beafts which were alio kept in the lower Halls in great cages made of timber, wherein were kept in ibme Lions,in ocher TygreSj, in other Ownzes, in other Wolves in coadufion, there was no four-footed 5 beaft that wanted there, only to the effeftthat the mighty Montezuma might fay that he had fuch things in his houfe- and all were fed daily with Turkey cocks, Deare, Dogges, and fuch like.
There were alfo in another Hall great earthen veflelsfome with earth, and ibme with water, wherein were Snakes, as grofle as a mans thigh, Vipers, Crocodiles which they call Caymana 9 of twenty foot long with fcales and head like a Dragon ; befides many other imaller Liiarts and other venemous beafts and Serpents, as well of the water as of the land.
Tothefe Snakes and the other vene- mous beafts they ufually gave the blood of men facrificed to feed them. Butot one garden mbre e- fpecially it islaidthat in it there were a thoufind perfonages made, and wrought ar- tificially of leaves and flowers.
And Montezumi would not permit that in this gar- den ihould be any kind ot Pot-herbs, or things to be foid,i'aying that ic did not apper- tain to. Kings to have things of profit among their delights and pleafures, for that fuch did apper aine to Merchants.
Such and Co many were the houfes of Montezuma, wherein few Kings were equall with him. Hebaddayly attending upon him n his privy guard fix hundred noblemen and gentlemenand each of them three or toure fervantsand ibme had twenty fervants or more according to their eftate; and the moft credible re- port goes, that in this manner he had three thoufand men attendants in his Courtall which were fed in his houfc of the meat that came from his table.
But efpecially forxhe Emperours chimneys they brought the barke of Oke trees, which was efteemed for the light. Thus was that great City formerly illuftratcd with a mighty Monarch, his houiesand attendants.
There were then alio in Mexico three forts of ftreets, very broad and fai re ; the one fort was only of water, with many bridges, another fort of only earth, and the third of earth and water, the one half being firme ground to walke upon, and the other halfe for boats to bring provision to the City; the moft part of the houies had two doores, the one toward thcCawfey, and the other toward the water, at the which they tookeboat togoewhithertheylilr.
From this fountaine all the whole City is provi- ded, and the Water-men go felling the fame water from ftreet toft reet, fome in little boats,otherswith earthen Tankards upon Mules orAifes backs. Thechiefe and prin- cipal! And be- caufeof the Kings palace there, the whole City was named Mix-co.
But theold and firft name of theCity according tofome Hiitories was Ter. Mexico is as much as to fay a fpring or fountainaccording to the property of the vowell or fpeech, from whence fome judge that City tobe ib named. But others doe affirnie that Mexico hath its name from a more anciejat time, whofe fir it founders were called Mexiti, for unto this day the Indian dwellers in one iireet of this City are called of Mexica. And that theie Mcx- iti tooke name of their principall idol called Mexhli y who was in as great veneration as.
The moft fortunate of theie Kings was Izcboalt, who by his couiln TlacaeUec, fubdued the other fix Tribes,and brought them under the Mexican Kings. But he very nobly refuied it, faying that it was more con- venient for the Common-wealth that another fhould be Kingand that he ihould ex- ecute that which was otherwiie more fit for the neceffity of the State, then to lay the whole burthen upon his back 5 and that without being Kinghe would not leave to labour for the publike as well as if he were King.
Upon this generous refulall they made choice of Montezuma the firft. But this imprifonment of their Emperour fibred up the hearts of all the Mexicans to confpire againft Cortez and the Spaniardsagainft whom they fought a moft fierce and bloody battaile two or three daies together, crying out for their Emperour, and threatening them with the cruelleft death that ever man iuffered.
Cortez defirousto fee what remained of the City to win, went up into a high Tow- er, and having well vkwed the Cityhee judged that of eight patts one remained yet to win. Oh thpu Sun tfeat canft. One would have thought there had not been five thoufand left in all the City feeing the heapes of dead bodies that lay about the ftre s and in the houics.
When theday a ppeared, Cortez With his men, and foure Pceces ofOidnance came to the corner where thofe that yet remained werefhut upas Cattel in a Pound. Then came out of the City a great multitude of old folkes, men, women and children to tike boat.
The throng was io greac with haft to enter the Canoas, that many by that meanes were drowned in the Iake. The men ofWarreftood in the houietoppes, and ZotteJ beholding tlieirperdition.
Gar- da Holguin who was aCaptaineof oneofthe Vergantines, efpied a great Canos of twenty Oaresdeep laden with men, who being by one of his prifoners informed that the King was in it gavechafeto it and prefently overtooke it.
When Quabuti- moc who ftood upon the Puppe of his Cama ready to fighr, faw the Spaniards Crofle- bowesbentto boot, and many drawnefwordsagainfthim, heeyeelded feimfelfe,de- daring that hee was King.
Cortez comforted him with faire words givinghim hope of life j and tooke him up into a Znie, requiring him to command his Subjefts that yet held out, to yeeld and render themfelves.
Which Quahutimoc pre- iently performed ; and at that time after io many Prifoners taken, and Co many thou- fands ikinandftarved, there were about threefcore and ten thoufand perfons, who feeing their Prince a Prifoner, threw down their weapons and fubmitced themfelves.
In remembrance whereof every yeere'on that day they make in Mexico a fumptuous feaft and folemnc proceflion, wherein is carried the Standard Roy all, with the which the City was wonne.
The Siege endured from the time the Vergantines came from IhxcaUan three moneths, and therein were on Cortez his fide neer Indians. And on the Mexicans fide were flaine at leaft a hundred and twenty thou- fand Indians, beiides thofe that died with hunger and Peftilence. At the defence of the City were all the Nobilityby rcafon whereof many of them were flaine. The multitude of people in the City was fo great, that they were conftrained to eat little, to drink fait water, and tofleep among the dead bodies, where was a horri- ble ftench; and for thefecaufes thediieafe of Peftilence fell among them, and there- of died an infinite number.
And here alfo is to be noted that although the Mexicans did eat mans fleih, yet they did eat none but fuch as were their enemies- forbad they eaten one another and their owne children, there would notfo many have died with hunger. The Mexican women were highly commended, not onely becaufe they abode with their husbands and father? The City was yeelded to the fpoileand the Spaniards tooke the gold, plate and feathers, the Indian friends had all the reft of cloth and other ftuffe.
Cortez having found the aire of that City very temperate andpleafant for mans life, and thefituation commodious thought prefently of rebuilding it and of making it the chief Seat of 5 Juftice and Court for all that Country. And where I nnmber two hundred thoufand of thefe boats, I fpeak of theleaft. The Market is called in the Ir. This place was wide and large compaiftd about with dores,and was fo great that a hundred thou- fand perfons came thither to chop and change,as a City molt principall in all that regi- on.
Every occupation and kind of merchandize had his proper place appointed, which no other might by any means occupie or difturb. Likewife pefterous wares had their place accordingly 5 fuch as ftone, timberlyme, brickeand allfuch kind of ftufFe unwrought, being neceflary to build withall.
Alfo mattes both fine and courier of fundry workmanfhip; alfo coales, wood, and all forts of earthen veflells, glazed and painted very curioufly. Deere skinner both raw and tanned in hair and without hair, of many colours, for Shoemakers, for bucklers, Targets, Jerkins, and lining of wooddencorflets- alfo skinnes of other beafts, and fowle in feathers ready drefled of all forts.
The colours and ftrangenefle thereof was a thing to behold. They fold thred there made of Conie-haire, and alfo skains of other thred of all colours. But the great ftore of poultrey which was brought to that Market was ftrange to fee, and the ufes they fold and bought them for 5 for al- though they did eat chefMiof thefowl, yetthe feathers ferved for clothing, mixing one fort with another. But the eWtfe bravery of that market was the place where gold and feathers joy ntly wrought were fold ; for any thing that was in requeftwas there lively wrought in gold and feathers and gall ant colours.
The Indians were fo expert and perteft in this fcience, that tfcey would work or make a butter-fiie,any wild beaft, trees, roies, flowers,hcarbs,roots, or any other thing fo lively that it Album) a thingmar- vellous to behold. There are few nations of fo much fleame or fubftarce. The artor fcience of Gold-fmiths Album) them was the moft curious, and very good workmanftip. They will call a platter in mould with eight corners, and every corner of feverall metallthe one of gold, and the other of filver, without any kind of folder.
They have skill alfo of Amdl work and to let any pretious tone. There were pearls, pretious ftones, diver? There were alfo many kind of hcrbe? They gathered much of this and kept it in heapes, and made thereof cakes like unto brick-bats. They fold likewife in this market Veniion by quarters or w K ole, as Does, Hare?
There is a fort as bigge as an Almond called Cacao whereof is the drinke called Cbocolattt well known now in Chriftendome which is both meat and currant money. In thefe times of the bigger ibrt fixicore or feyenicore, and of the lefler fort two hundred are worth a Spanijh Riallwhich is fixpence, and with thefe the lndimjbuy what they lilt 5 for five, nay for two Cacao's which is a very fmallpart of a Rialljthey doe buy fruits and the like. There were di- vers kinds of colours to be fold, which they made of rofes, flowers, fruits.
All the things recited, and many others which. Jfpeaknotof, were fold in this great market, and in every other Market of Mixi- coy and all the fellers payed a certain fumme for their ihops or ftandings to the King, a?
They had meafure and ftrike for all kind of come, and other earthen meafures for honyandoyle, and iiich wines as they made of Palme-trees, and other roots and trees. And if any meafure were falsified, they puniihed the offenders and brake their meafures. Thi: was the civility they had when they were Heathensfor buying and felling. And although they knew not the true God, but worifrpped Idols 5 yet to their Idolsand to the Divell they dedicated Temples and places of worihip, where- in they ufed thoie facrifice which David fpeaks of in the 1 This Tem- ple Lair Of All Rats To Dwell - Genocidio - Under Heaven None (CD fquare, and did coetaine every way as much ground as a Crofle-bowcan reach levell.
It was made of tonewith four dores that abutted upon the three Cawfeys5. In the mid ft of this Quadern ftood a mount of earth and ftone fquare likewife, and fifty fadome long every waybuilt upward like unto a pyramide of JEgypt t fav'mg that the top was not iharpe, but plain and flat, and ten fadom fquare. Upon the Weft fide were fteps up to the top, in number a hundred and fourteen, which being fo many, high and made of good ftone, did feeme a beautifull thing.
It was a ftrange fight to behold the Preifts, fome going upand fomedowne with ceremonies, or with men to be facrifi- ced. Upon the top of this Temple were two great Altars, a good fpace dittant the one from the other, and fo nigh the edge or brimme of the wallthat fcarcely a man might go behind them at pleafure. Survey of the Weft -Indies, ltone, painted with monitrous and roul figures. The Chapptll was fair and well wrougatut Mafons work and timber; every Chapptll had three loKs one above ano- ther, fulbincdupon pillars, and with the height thereof it ihewed like unto a faire towerand beautified the City afarre off.
From thence a man might fee all the City and Towns round about the lake, which was undoubtedly a goodly profpeft. There was a certain plot or fpace for the Idoll Preiits to celebrate their fervice wi hout disturbance of any. Belides this tower which ftoodupon the Pyramide, there were fourty towers great and mail belonging to other little Temples which Mood hi the fame circuitejthe which although they were of the fame makingyet their profpeft was not Weil-wardbu: ether waies, becaufe there ihould be a difference betwixt the great Temple and thera.
Some of thefe Temples were bigger then otherB, and every one of a feverall God- ; a- mong the which there was one round Temple dedicated to the God of the ayre called ghfccjlcovatlforeven as the ayre goeth round about the heavens, even for thatconlide- ration they made his Temple round. The entrance of that Temple had a dore made like unto the mouth of a Serpent, and was painted with foule and divelhfh geftures, with g.
There were other Teucallies in the City, that had the afcending up by iteps in three places; and all thefe Temples had houfes by themfelves with all ftrvice belonging to them, and Preiits, and particular Gods.
And laitly in their houfes and doiiteisjoyning to their Churches for the fervice of them, being full of idolatrous Preifts and Fryers confecrated for their fervice, they feem likewife to have borrowed that fancy of Convents, Abbeys, and Priories from the very Heathens, who aspre- fently I hall ibew hadneer joyningto this great Temple, houfes containing thou- fandsof Preiits, wi.
At every dore of this gi eat Temple of Mxic» food a large hall,a nd goodly lodgings both high and low round about, which houfes were common Armories tor the City. The Heathens it feems had fo much undemanding as to know that the force audftrengh of a Towne, City, orCountrey isthe Temple,and therefore they placed the, e their ftorehoufc of munition.
They had other darke houfes full of Idols great and fmal! All the reliducof the fore- faid circuit lei ved for places to breed fowlcs, With gardens of herbs and fwcet trees. Such, fo great and ftrange was this Temple of Afleo forthe ferviceof ihedevill, who haddeceived thofe fimple Indian. There did refide as I faid before of Monkes and Fryers in their Cloifters joyning to their Churches m this Temple and houfes joyning to it, continually five thoufand perfons, and ail thefe were lodged and had their living there- for that Temple was marvellous rich and had divers Townes onely for their maintenance, and reparation, and were bound tofoftainethefamealwaiesonfoot.
Thefe Townes did fow corn, and maintain all thofe five thoufand perfons with bread, fruit,fielb, nih,and firewood as much a" "hey needed for they fpent more firewood then was fpent in the Kings Court. The Gods of Mexico fas the Indians reported to the firft Spaniards were two thoufand in number; thechiefeft were n,zihpuch,li, ges flood highelhn the Temple upon the and TcJt!
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